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International scientific and practical law journal Eurasian Journal of International Law

Политика и экономика Евразии

Аюпова З.К., Кусаинов Д.У.

Правовая система Республики Казахстан как основа модернизации экономики государства

Цель: Исследование правовой системы Республики Казахстан как правовой основы модернизации экономики государства.

Методология: Использовались сравнительно-правовой, историко-правовой и формально-юридический методы.

Результаты: Авторы разработали теоретические положения категории «правовая система» и соответствующих её аспектов, проанализировали текущие процессы правовой интеграции, тенденции и направления её развития. Процессы интеграции сегодня обусловливают ситуацию, когда все правовые системы, включая право Казахстана, находятся под постоянным прессингом интеграции и развития права, что вызывает активное изменение содержания и структуры системы. Для обеспечения своей эффективности интеграция требует выработки единых правовых норм, процедур, стандартов. Сегодня все правовые системы мира впервые оказались связаны (хоть и недостаточно эффективно) определенными формальными правовыми обязательствами, что повлекло за собой цепную реакцию взаимодействия между ними.

Новизна/оригинальность/ценность: Статья обладает высокой научной ценностью, поскольку является одной из первых попыток рассмотреть историю развития правовой системы государства через призму эволюции гражданского общества, а также вопросы, связанные с процессами правовой интеграции в функциональном, структурном и категориальном аспектах.

Ключевые слова: интеграция, правовая интеграция, развитие права, глобализация, международное право, правовая система, унификация, саморегуляция, общественные отношения.

Ayupova Z.К., Кussainov D.U.

The legal system of the Republic of Kazakhstan as the legal basis of the modernization of the economy of the state

Purpose: Developement of theoretical propositions for the category «legal system» and its relevant aspects, to identify and analyze current processes of legal integration.

Methodology: is based on a set of applicable methods of scientific knowledge, which provide the most effective solution of the problems in the study.

Results: The authors developed a theoretical position for the category «legal system» and its relevant aspects, analyzed the current processes of legal integration, trends and directions of its development. The basis of the research methodology adopted set of applicable methods of scientific knowledge, which allow most effectively solve the research problem. Integration processes today cause a situation where all the legal system, including the right of Kazakhstan, are under constant pressure from the integration and development of the law that is actively changing the content and structure of the system. Integration requires to ensure its effectiveness the elaboration of common legal rules, procedures, standards. Today all the legal systems of the world for the first time appeared related (albeit inefficiently) certain formal legal obligations, which resulted in a chain reaction of interaction between them.

Novelty / originality / value: The paper has a high scientific value, since it is one of the first attempts to consider the history of the legal system of the state through the prism of the evolution of civil society, as well as issues related to the process of legal integration in the functional, structural and categorical aspects.

Keywords: integration, legal integration, development of the law, globalization, international law, legal system, standardization, regulation, public relations.

In many of the contradictions of the theory and practice of legal reforms and the establishment of the legal system research scholars pointed out in the past and in recent years. The radical economic reform in Kazakhstan gained full strength, which requires an immediate adjustment of economic legislation without which every step of the reform would mean a violation of obsolete, but not abolished, not replaced and modified, i.e. formally applicable law, and that this may lead either to snare the reforms, or to uncontrolled, unplanned, even the system of market relations [1, 2]. Hence the proposed drastic measures that are required not only hasty preparation of laws and other legal regulations, creating a legal framework for economic reform, but also prompt them to change because they have not kept place with the dynamic restructuring of economic relations. In other words, the elemental system of market relations should be organized to oppose the legal system, which would have been just as dynamic as some laws passed just a year or two ago seemed hopelessly outdated, and some laws in the process of reform are fully updated several times.

A very instructive retrospective look at the recent, but still has a legal history, which, it seems, has become part of the overall legal system, with all its discoveries and mistakes. The law on currency regulation in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, adopted in 1991, was replaced in April, and then in 2006 passed a new law «On Currency Regulation». The Law about bankruptcy in in April 2005 replaced by a having the force of the law by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On Bankruptcy», as well January 21, 2007 was adopted by the new Law about bankruptcy. If we continue this list, it will get quite large. Some laws, such as «On Concessions in the Republic of Kazakhstan» were canceled, and never applied. How many times was undergoing withdrawal and change the tax laws?

Unsystematic and unstable legislation in the field of market economy is both objective and subjective reasons. Main features of the transition period – the need for drastic and rapid changes in reforming the economy in a very short time, without careful study, analysis and discussion of the real situation. We would especially like to say about the role of science in the formation of a new legal system. There is no doubt that, in general, the science behind the legal needs of social development, especially when it relates to the theory of law, philosophy and sociology of law. This on the one hand. On the other hand, are unclaimed available scientific developments, often quite serious and solid. It is primarily about the science of civil law, which since the Soviet era Kazakhstan was developed at a high enough level; it operates in the tradition of post-Soviet period [4, 5].

The successes of our scholars considerable, they are carefully analyzed all the major steps in the process of legal transformation of economic relations, showed that the main core of the legislative destruction centrally managed, strictly hierarchical system of management were the legislative and other legal regulations that determine the mechanism of dismantling state ownership and its conversion to non-state ownership (the term «private property» came into use immediately and not difficult, and rarely used in the narrow sense). In other words, the main direction consisted in privatization of state property.

Concerning terminological clarification, we say that the concept of «denationalization» and «privatization» should be understood as a two-stage non-breaking process, first denationalization, and then privatization. Although it is possible to use one last term (which then was), but in terms of overcoming the totalitarian, administrative mandatory system was important to focus not on the privatization, the thorny path which seemed to be unpredictable, but above all – on the release of property from the shackles of the state. Therefore, the term «privatization» seemed at first more relevant, specific, understandable. It is scientifically acceptable. In this context, the term «privatization of the law» should get the right of citizenship, which means that in law-abiding state the law enjoys considerable autonomy from the state, operates and develops as a relatively independent judicial system in contrast to the political system.

In the first acts of, which ushered in denationalize of property, predominated the ideato convey ownership of the state labor collectives. At the initial stage of the general line, in general, was that the government sends workers productive assets, and privatization is to convert state-owned enterprises in the lease and the collective. The process started back in the USSR and half-evolution; half-revolution was continued in independent Kazakhstan.

In the subsequent development of the legal framework of privatization was to be held in accordance with Presidential Decree having the force of law, on December 23, 1995 «On privatization».

One of the many reasons for the dramatic and crisis events in the area of legislation was the lack of a unified legal system, its becoming difficult and protracted. Now, after several years of legal drama (as, indeed, social, economic) is perceived and estimated to be less acute. This is an indication that the effort was not wasted, and in establishing a new legal system has made significant progress. In this way, there were attempts to revive direct state management of the economy, especially the transformation of government economic agencies in the state holding company. But it turned out to be a viable joint-stock company, whose legal status is being actively discussed in the community, including scientists and lawyers.

Prof. M.K. Suleimenov analyzes the development of the institution of property law in the legislation of Kazakhstan [3]. He shows how was conceived, formed, freed from ideological stamps and was close to international standards, the concept of property law and, above all, the right of private property, believes that the concept of property law, as in a drop of water reflects all the problems and achievements of the society and the state.

Reviewing the development of the question, M.K. Suleimenov identifies three stages of development of the institution of property law. The first stage – property law in the development and strengthening the economic independence of Kazakhstan as a union republic (concept of self-governing and self-financing of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic). It was not easy to gradually overcome the existing stereotypes of the system of socialist property, consisting of three forms – public, cooperative, trade union property and other public organizations, as well as personal property – a derivative of a socialist.

Already at that time the concept of «socialist property» generally disappeared from the law, a life dictated rejection of the notion of state ownership as something uniform, monumental and certainly the all-Union. In the concept of the self- governing and self-financing of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was provided an individual property, which was divided into personal and individual production (small, private). The document called for and the use of hired labor. Private property and wage labor (without limitation) for the labor and peasant farms were recorded in the Law on Property in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. The classification of enterprises according to the forms of property was given in the Law on Enterprises in the USSR.

The second stage – property law under conditions of Kazakhstan as a sovereign state. The law «On Property in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic» was adopted on December 15, 1990. It’s fixed for the first time the basic principles and concepts of ownership, today announced the exclusive property of the Republic of land and other natural resources. Everything else is public property and the property has been declared republican, though still allowed the formation and the country’s total. Most clearly, this principle is expressed in Art. 3 of the Law of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic on denationalization and privatization. The last point raised Presidential Decree «On the gold and diamond reserve fund in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic». Property Law in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic for the first time no longer use the term «socialist» or «people’s» property. It is written right to private property (Art. 7, paragraph 2). Given the social and national characteristics in the legislation of the republic, was then prohibited the transfer of land to private ownership.

Valuable was the fact that the Law given to the concept of property law as rights to possess, use and dispose of property at its discretion. These three powers are so-called triad of ownership. Only if all three together belong to the person, he will be considered the owner of the property.

The third stage – the right of property in the transition to a market economy – characterized by the adoption of the Law on Property of the Civil Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan (General Part), of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 1995, the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan having the force of law «On Land» on December 22, 1995, etc. Since then, the legal framework of a market economy has grown significantly – the new Law «On Land» and many other regulations. This is basically the current legal reality – the existence of only two forms of ownership – public and private (Art. 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan), consolidation of private land ownership, etc.

Contentious, controversial, not fully resolved issues still missing, but on the new regulations take time to test them in practice, for a scientific understanding of the first specialists-branches, and then to their generalization in the theory of law. But one thing is certain – expanding the legal framework of market relations and the development of legal rules governing property relations, contribute to improving the system of legislation, system of law and national legal system.

Legal reforms in the economy are not limited to issues of market relations and property. Besides these fundamental issues contain a lot of relatively independent, complex and urgent problems attracting strain attention of legal theory, and the legislative and legal practice. One of them is the issue of object law, considered not as a special branch of law, and called that way because of the special self-important and his place in the general problem of ownership and the issues affecting the systematization of the law, eventually rising to general problems of the legal system.

We believe that many of these requests have been implemented in the Special Part of the Civil Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan. But the way for further improvement is not closed, which is not the last place should be at the improvement of the system – first in the industry and the special sciences, law, and then in the legal system as a whole, both in theory and philosophy of law.

A small number of rules of the Civil Code, dealing with direct management of natural resources due to the fact that, with respect to the use of natural resources and environmental protection is used primarily special, and not civil law. Special legislation on the same environment and natural resources as part of the natural environment rather extensive and is divided into inter-branch and branch. As we see, on the complex relationships we have a large set of regulations that are the basis to claim the formation of a particular system of law and entry into the general legal system.

In the conclusion, we would like to stress, that the legislation governing the economic sphere is wide. There are: custom, investment, and tax laws, finance and banking, economic and transport, etc. All these laws have their place and fulfill the important role in the modernization of the economy of the modern Kazakhstan.

Пристатейный библиографический список

1. Мельников В.В. Конституционные основы регулирования экономических отношений в России // Новый юридический журнал. – 2011. – № 3. – С. 104–111.

2. Мухтасарова Т.Р. Теория и правовая природа правоотношений собственности в России // Новый юридический журнал. – 2013. – № 4. – С. 17–22.

3. Suleimenov M. K. The development of the institute of property law in the legislation of Kazakhstan // Scientific works of Adilet. – 2007. – № 1. – P. 10–22.

4. Шайхуллин М.С. К вопросу о трансформации традиций местного самоуправления и правовых основах их нейтрализации в советской России // История государства и права. – 2013. – № 5. – С. 41–43.

5. Шайхуллин М.С. К вопросу о противодействии негативным традициям в системе местного самоуправления правовыми средствами // Ученые труды Российской академии адвокатуры и нотариата. – 2012. – № 3. – С. 45–48.

References (transliterated)

1. Mel’nikov V.V. Konstitucionnye osnovy regulirovanija jekonomicheskih otnoshenij v Rossii // Novyj juridicheskij zhurnal. – 2011. – № 3. – S. 104–111.

2. Muhtasarova T.R. Teorija i pravovaja priroda pravootnoshenij sobstvennosti v Rossii // Novyj juridicheskij zhurnal. – 2013. – № 4. – S. 17–22.

3. Suleimenov M. K. The development of the institute of property law in the legislation of Kazakhstan // Scientific works of Adilet. – 2007. – № 1. – P. 10–22.

4. Shajhullin M.S. K voprosu o transformacii tradicij mestnogo samoupravlenija i pravovyh osnovah ih nejtralizacii v sovetskoj Rossii // Istorija gosudarstva i prava. – 2013. – № 5. – S. 41–43.

5. Shajhullin M.S. K voprosu o protivodejstvii negativnym tradicijam v sisteme mestnogo samoupravlenija pravovymi sredstvami // Uchenye trudy Rossijskoj akademii advokatury i notariata. – 2012. – № 3. – S. 45–48.





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