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EVENTS
Resolution by results of an expert discussion «Right of the advocate: what prevents to protect the person in Russia» within the All-Russian civil forum – 2018 (Moscow, December 8, 2018)

HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE
Danilevskaya I.L.
On the Role of Advocate Self-Management in The Formation of Russian Constitutionalism
(1864–1917)
Purpose: To analyze the activities of the Russian advocates in the period from 1864 to 1917 in order to show the role of the institute of advocate self-management.
Methodology: Historical and legalistic approaches were used.
Results: The study of professional, socio-political and parliamentary activities of advocates during the period from 1864 to 1917 was conducted. Several aspects were examined in more detail, in particular, the work of advocates in political processes and their speeches in defense of revolutionaries. It is shown that advocates defended the rights of the individual and criticized the injustice of the existing state system. The growth of political activity of the advocacy – its participation in the activities of various political parties, in work of the State Duma, the Provisional Government – is analyzed as well. Due to the relative independence of the advocacy from the state power, its electivity and self–governance, Russian advocacy has made a significant contribution to the development of the elements of practical constitutionalism – independence of the judiciary, functioning of the jury, protection of individual rights – as well as in the formation of the ideas of theoretical constitutionalism in the period of the birth of the constitutional state in
Russia.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has certain scientific value, as it compares the formation of Russian constitutionalism with the activities of the self-management of the Russian advocacy.
Keywords: constitutionalism, judiciary, law-based state, barristers; advocacy, councils of the self-management, bar, general bar meetings.
References (transliterated)
1.Rossijskoe zakonodatel`stvo X–XX vekov: teksty` i kommentarii / pod obshh. red. O.I. Chistyakova. M.: Yurid. lit., 1991.
2.Istoriya russkoj advokatury`: v 3 t. / pod red. M.N. Gernet. T. 2. Soslovnaya organizaciya advokatury`. M.: Izdanie sovetov prisyazhny`x poverenny`x, 1916.
3.Istoriya russkoj advokatury`: v 3 t. / pod red. M.N. Gernet. T. 3. M.: Izdanie sovetov prisyazhny`x poverenny`x, 1916.
4.Makalinskij I.V. Sankt-Peterburgskaya prisyazhnaya advokatura. Deyatel`nost` Sankt-Peterburgskix Soveta i obshhix sobranij prisyazhny`x poverenny`x za 22 goda (1866–1888 gg.). SPb., 1889.
5.Shamba T.M., Kokin V.N. Advokatura v Rossijskoj Federacii. M.: Norma: Infra-M, 2010.
6.Varfolomeev Yu.V. Advokat N.K. Murav`ev i politicheskie processy` v Rossii (konecz XIX – nachalo XX v.) // Otechestvennaya istoriya. 2006. № 6. S. 61–73.
7.Xaski Yu. Rossijskie advokaty` i sovetskoe gosudarstvo. Proisxozhdenie i razvitie advokatury`. 1917–1939. M.: Institut gosudarstva i prava RAN, 1993.
8.Maklakov V.A. Pervaya gosudarstvennaya Duma. Parizh: Avtor, 1939.
9.Shul`zhenko Yu.L. Otechestvenny`j konstitucionalizm. M.: Institut gosudarstva i prava RAN, 2010.
10.Advokatura Rossii / pod red. S.S. Yur`eva. M.: Yurajt, 2015.
11.Maklakov V.A. Rech` na zasedanii Gosudarstvennoj Dumy` 3 noyabrya 1916 g. // Rechi: sudebny`e, dumskie i publichny`e lekcii. Parizh, 1949.
 
HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE
Golshev I.A.
Main Directions of Judicial and Legal Policies of the Russian Empire (1825–1850)
Purpose: This study aims to research the specific dynamic of formation of judicial and legal policy of the Russian Empire in the second quarter of the first half of the 19th century.
Methodology: Historical and legalistic approaches, as well as method of historical periodization were used in the article.
Results: The author gives periodization of development of judicial and legal policies of Russia in the second quarter of the first half of the 19th century on the basis of the analysis of reform of public administration. The two main periods are discussed. The beginning of the first period is tied to accession to the throne of Emperor Nikolay I in 1825 and legal transformations related to his rule: review of activities of the Legislative Comissions by M.M.Speransky by the request of the Emperor, Speransky’s preparation of the plan for systematization of the legislation and his work on «Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire» (1830) and «Digest of Laws of the Russian Empire» (1832). The role of the Minister of Justice D.N. Bludov (1839) in preparation of «Statute of Proceedings for Crimes and Offenses» is examined as well. The second period is the period of service of V.N. Panin as the Minister of Justice (1839–1862). Contradictions of the ideas of D.N. Bludov and V.N. Panin are explained. V.N. Panin’s role in creation of the Moscow Archive of the Ministry of Justice (1852) is analyzed as well.
Novelty/originality/value: This study has a scientific value as it establishes the continuity of the ideas of statesmen of the considered period, as well as existence of contradictions between such ideas. The sources of the State Archive of the Russian Federation are used in the article.
Keywords: Russia, judicial system, judicial and legal policies, 1825–1850.
References (transliterated)
1.Babenko V.N. Sudebnaya sistema Rossii: istoriya i sovremennost`. M., 2005.
2.Babenko V.N. Istoriya otechestvennogo gosudarstva i prava Rossii. M., 2016.
3.Dokumenty` d. tajnogo sovetnika grafa M.M. Speranskogo: sobstvennoruchny`e zapiski, zametki // GARF, f. 48., op. 1, d. 463, ch. III. S. 106.
4.Kostanov A.I., E`skin Yu.M. Arxivy` i arxivnoe delo v Sibiri i na Dal`nem Vostoke v dopetrovskij period // Otechestvenny`e arxivy`. 2006. № 4. S. 3–18.
5.Suzdaleva T.R., Fedorov K.V. D.N. Bludov i podgotovka Sudebnoj reformy` 1864 g. // Istoriya gosudarstva i prava. 2013. № 14. S. 4–8.
6.Suzdaleva T.R., Fedorov K.V. Protivnik sudebnoj reformy` 1864 goda V.N. Panin // Gumanitarny`j vestnik. 2015. Vy`p. 1 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://hmbul.bmstu.ru/catalog/hum/histarch/234.html.
7.Speranskij M.M. Plan gosudarstvennogo preobrazovaniya grafa M.M. Speranskogo: Vvedenie k Ulozheniyu gosudarstvenny`x zakonov 1809 g. M., 1905 [E`lektronny`j resurs] URL: https://elib.shpl.ru/>ru/nodes/4957-speranskiy-m-m-plan-gosudarstvennogo-preobrazovaniya-grafa-m-m-speranskogo-vvedenie-k-ulozheniyu-gosudarstvennyh-zakonov-1809-g-s-pril-m-1905.
 
HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE
Mirniy D.S.
Involvement of the USSR and the United States in the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988)
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study the specific aspects of the implementation of the international law provisions by the USSR and USA in the context of the Iran-Iraq armed conflict, to examine the legal status of Soviet military advisers in Iraq, and to analyze the relations of the USSR and USA with Iran and Iraq in 1980–1988.
Methodology: Legalistic, historical and analytic approaches were used.
Results: This article discusses the main aspects of the Soviet and American involvement in the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988), as well as problems of the diplomatic relations of the Soviet Union and the USA with the states that were the parties to the conflict and aspects of military cooperation. The author comes to the conclusion that Soviet military advisers in Iraq could not be defined as mercenaries under Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and also recognizes the fallacy of the USSR and US policies during the ending period of the conflict. The author also recognizes fallacy of US and USSR policies towards Iran during the ending stage of the conflict.
Novelty/originality/value: Analysis of individual provisions of existing treaties between Russia as a successor state of the USSR from one side and Iran and Iraq from another, forming the basis of bilateral relations, as well as analysis of the status of military advisers in foreign countries form the value of this article. Studying the experience of the relations of the USSR and US with the parties to the conflict is useful for creating the new formats of cooperation with the states of the Muslim world.
Keywords: diplomacy, Geneva Conventions, Iran, Iraq, Iran-Iraq war, international law, USSR, USA.
References (transliterated)
1.Blight James G. Becoming Enemies: U.S.-Iran Relations and the Iran-Iraq War, 1979–1988. New York: Rowman&Littlefield, 2014.
2.The Gulf War of 1980–1988: The Iran-Iraq War in International Legal Perspective / ed. by Iger F. Dekker, Harry H.G. Post. Utrecht: Nederlands Instituut voor Sociaal en Economisch Recht, 1992.
3.Do the Geneva Conventions Matter? / ed. by Matthew Evangelista, Nina Tannenwald. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.
4.Kalinovsky Artemy. The Soviet Union and the Iran-Iraq war // The Iran-Iraq War: New International Perspectives / ed. by Nigel Ashton, Bryan Gibson. London: Routledge, 2013.
5.The Iran-Iraq War: Impact and Implications / ed. by Efraim Karsh. Berlin: Springer, 1989.
6.Razoux Pierre. The Iran-Iraq War. London: Harvard University Press, 2015.
7.Smolansky Oles M., Bettie M. Smolansky. The USSR and Iraq: The Soviet Quest for Influence. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991.
8.Tarock Adam. The Superpowers’ Involvement in the Iran-Iraq War. Hauppage: Nova Publishers, 1998.
9.Farxutdinov I.Z. Amerikanskaya doktrina o preventivnom voennom udare ot Monro do Trampa: mezhdunarodno-pravovy`e aspekty`. M.: EVRAZNIP, 2017.
10.Farxutdinov I.Z. Amerikanskaya doktrina o preventivnom udare ot Monro do Trampa: mezhdunarodno-pravovy`e aspekty`. M.: Infra-M, 2018.
11.Farxutdinov I.Z. Iranskaya doktrina o preventivnoj samooborone i mezhdunarodnoe pravo (okonchanie) // Evrazijskij yuridicheskij zhurnal. 2017. № 2 (105). S. 15–25.
 
PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Kurmanalieva A.A.
«Pro Bono» Institute as One of The Areas of Advocate Activity (Kyrgyzstan’s Experience)
Purpose: Clarification of the specifics of the implementation of the idea of providing «Pro Bono» legal assistance in the Kyrgyz Republic in the light of legislative and institutional realities.
Methodology: Legalistic and comparative methods were used in the paper.
Results : It is established that the system of free legal assistance delivery within the framework of “Pro Bono” is underdeveloped in the Kyrgyzstan. Currently there is no regulatory framework for the regulation of relations within the “Pro Bono” framework, as well as formed civil and professional positions on this issue. That’s why the legal community today face the difficult task of organizing a system of relationships within the “Pro Bono” framework so that representatives of the legal profession can implement the “Pro Bono” cases. In the absence of legislative regulation of “Pro Bono” relations in the Kyrgyz Republic, there are some difficulties in the process of adapting the principles of “Pro Bono” activities to the realities of the legal community. There is no single agreed definition of the term “Pro Bono”, but it is possible to get a general idea of what this concept means, perhaps from the procedural guidelines and regulatory documents that exist in different countries.
Novelty/originality/value: The paper has a high scientific value, since it is one of the first attempts to analyze the practice of the implementation of advocate activities in the framework of the Pro Bono system.
Keywords: advocate, advocacy, Pro Bono, judicial assistance, legal services.
References (transliterated)
1.Bugarenko A.I. Besplatnaya yuridicheskaya pomoshh` v nekotory`x zarubezhny`x stranax // Arbitrazhnaya praktika. 2010. № 5. S. 15.
2.Galoganov A.P. Gosudarstvenny`e yuridicheskie byuro i advokatskaya deyatel`nost`: obshhee i osobennoe // Pravozashhitnik.2013. № 1. S. 14.
3.Kazun A. Social`naya otvetstvennost` rossijskix advokatov: faktory` okazaniya besplatnoj yuridicheskoj pomoshhi po naznacheniyu i pro bono // Zhurnal issledovanij social`noj politiki. 2015. № 4. S. 563–578.
4.Kazun A., Yakovlev A. Rossijskie advokaty`: stanovlenie professional`nogo soobshhestva v nesovershennoj institucional`noj srede // Obshhestvenny`e nauki i sovremennost`. 2014. № 6. S. 39–56.
5.Panchenko V., Mixaleva A. Pravovoe stimulirovanie yuridicheskoj pomoshhi na bezvozmezdnoj osnove (po sisteme pro bono) // Istoricheskie, filosofskie, politicheskie i yuridicheskie nauki, kul`turologiya i iskusstvovedenie. Voprosy` teorii i praktiki. 2014. № 12. S. 145–147.
6.Romanov P.V., Yarskaya-Smirnova E.R. Social`naya rabota v sovremennoj Rossii: analiz statusa professional`noj gruppy` // Sociologicheskie issledovaniya. 2014. № 10. S. 61–69.
7.Ryabceva E.V. «Pro bono» kak napravlenie deyatel`-nosti advokatury`: rossijskij opy`t // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2015. № 1. S. 18–21.
8.Ryabceva E.V. Formy` besplatnoj yuridicheskoj pomoshhi v mezhdunarodnom prave i praktike zarubezhny`x stran // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2014. № 6. S. 20–25.
9.Standarty` kachestva raboty` advokatov, okazy`va-yushhix kvalificirovannuyu yuridicheskuyu pomoshh` po ugolovny`m delam v sisteme garantirovannoj gosudarstvom yuridicheskoj pomoshhi [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL:http://advokatura.kg/free-legal-aid/standarty-kachestva-raboty-advokatov-okazyvayushchih-kvalificirovannuyu.
10.Yaroshenko Yu.O., Zubarev A.A. K voprosu o sootnoshenii besplatnoj yuridicheskoj pomoshhi i pomoshhi pro bono v RF // Cocial`no-e`konomicheskie issledovaniya, gumanitarny`e nauki i yurisprudenciya: teoriya i praktika. 2016. № 11. S. 260–265.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Zhilkin M.G.
Definition of illegal actions during bankruptcy on the basis of causing large damage
Purpose: This study aims to reveal features of legal definition of illegal actions during the bankruptcy process on the basis of causing large damage.
Methodology: Legalistic, comparative and logical methods were used, as well as method of system analysis.
Results: Based on the analysis of legislative, theoretical and practical approaches, the paper analyzes the qualitative component of the damage casued by illegal actions during bankruptcy and the calculation of its quantitative indicators, as well as of the mechanism of causation of such crimes and their ceasing.
Novelty/originality/value: The importance of work is that the author has determined the content of damage from illegal actions during the bankruptcy process and, based on such damage, has defined the moment of ceasing of such crimes and different criteria of their legal definition.
Keywords: damage; harm, major damage; consequences of crimes; economic crime.
References (transliterated)
1.Bankrotstvo fizicheskix licz. Ch. II. Izmeneniya v ugolovnom, grazhdanskom, administrativnom zakonoda-tel`stve i drugie (postatejny`j) / A.R. Agisheva, I.A. Aksenov, O. A. Grevczova i dr.; pod red. V.A. Gureeva. M.: Redakciya «Rossijskoj gazety`», 2015. Vy`p. 20. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
2.Govorkov N.M., Terexov E.V. Krupny`j ushherb pri kriminal`nom bankrotstve // Zakonnost`. 2013. № 11. S. 44–47.
3.Gutnikov O.V. Deliktnaya otvetstvennost` za narushenie otnositel`ny`x prav: perspektivy` razvitiya v rossijskom prave // Zakon. 2017. № 1. S. 22–37.
4.Karaxanov A.N. Kommentarij k Ugolovnomu kodeksu Rossijskoj Federacii (postatejny`j) / A.V. Brilliantov, G.D. Dolzhenkova, Ya.E. Ivanova i dr.; pod red. A.V. Brilliantova. M.: Prospekt, 2010. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
5.Klepiczkij I.A. Sistema xozyajstvenny`x prestuplenij. M., 2005. S. 328.
6.Kommentarij k Ugolovnomu kodeksu Rossijskoj Federacii (postatejny`j) / G.N. Borzenkov, A.V. Brilliantov, A.V. Galaxova i dr.; otv. red. V.M. Lebedev. 13-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Yurajt, 2013. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
7.Kommentarij k Ugolovnomu kodeksu Rossijskoj Federacii (postatejny`j) / Yu.V. Gracheva, L.D. Ermakova, G.A. Esakov i dr.; otv. red. A.I. Rarog. 7-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Prospekt, 2011. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
8.Skoblikov P.A. Primenenie norm UK RF o nepra-vomerny`x dejstviyax pri bankrotstve // Ugolovny`j process. 2013. № 1. S. 47–49.
9.Cepov G.V. Mozhno li sudit` za alchnost`? Otvetstvennost` kontroliruyushhix licz kommercheskoj kor-poracii pered kreditorami za prinyatie chrezmernogo pred-prinimatel`skogo riska pri ugroze nesostoyatel`nosti // Zakon. 2016. № 8. S. 98–120.
10.Shmatenko A.A. Ushherb kak e`lement ob``ektivnoj storony` kriminal`ny`x bankrotstv // Rossijskij sledovatel`. 2014. № 8. S. 27–32.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Markina I.N.
Features of Legislative Build-Up of the Objective Side of the Crime Set Out in the Article 123 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation
Purpose: To study the theoretical and practical problems of determining the objective side of the illegal conduct of artificial termination of pregnancy.
Methodology: Legalistic and comparative methods were used.
Results: The article suggests that the establishment of a causal relationship can be present only if the termination of a pregnancy preceded the criminal result and was a necessary condition for its occurrence. Severe damage to health or death may be caused not by induced abortion, but by other factors, which may include the following: the specific features of the woman’s organism, any diseases or pathologies she has, the behavior of the woman or third parties, etc.
Novelty/originality/value: The novelty of the article lies in the fact that the author forms a current understanding of the nature of the objective side of the crime of illegal conduct of an induced abortion.
Keywords: abortion, artificial terminal of pregnancy, objective side, serious injury to health, death.
References (transliterated)
1.Vlasenko V.V. Aktual`ny`e problemy` ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti za nezakonnoe provedenie iskusstvennogo prery`vaniya beremennosti (st. 123 UK RF) // Medicinskoe pravo. 2015. № 6. S. 43–47.
2.Gauxman L.D. Kvalifikaciya prestuplenij: zakon, teoriya, praktika. 4-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: AO «Centr YurInfoR», 2010.
3.Gorelik I.I. Kvalifikaciya prestuplenij, opasny`x dlya zhizni i zdorov`ya. Minsk: Vy`she`jshaya shkola, 1973.
4.Dolgolenko T.V. Prestupleniya protiv lichnosti: ucheb. posob. Krasnoyarsk: Sib. feder. un-t, 2011.
5.Dyadyun K.V. Nezakonnoe provedenie iskusstvennogo prery`vaniya beremennosti: problemy` kvalifikacii // Advokat. 2016. № 4. S. 30–37.
6.Zagorodnikov N.I. Prestupleniya protiv zdorov`ya. M.: Yuridicheskaya literatura, 1969.
7.Kiseleva I.A., Bezrukov E.N. Nezakonnoe iskusstvennoe prery`vanie beremennosti (st. 123 UK RF): problemny`e aspekty` // Privolzhskij nauchny`j vestnik. 2015. № 12-2 (52). S. 67–74.
8.Kiseleva M. Ugolovnaya otvetstvennost` za nezakonnoe prery`vanie beremennosti // Ugolovnoe pravo. 2008. № 4. S. 31–35.
9.Kiseleva M.V. Ugolovno-pravovaya oxrana materinstva: avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2010.
10.Korobeev A.I. Polny`j kurs ugolovnogo prava: v 5 t. / pod red. d-ra yurid. nauk, prof., zasluzhennogo deyatelya nauki RF A.I. Korobeeva. T. II. Prestupleniya protiv lichnosti. SPb.: Yuridicheskij centr Press, 2008.
11.Lozanovich L.A. Nezakonnoe proizvodstvo aborta: ugolovno-pravovoj i kriminologicheskij aspekty`: dis. … kand. yurid nauk. Stavropol`, 2004.
12.Mendel`son G.A. Otvetstvennost` za proizvodstvo nezakonnogo aborta po sovetskomu ugolovnomu pravu. V svete Ukaza Prezidiuma Verxovnogo Soveta SSSR ot 23 noyabrya 1955 g. «Ob otmene zapreshheniya abortov» / pod red. V.D. Men`shagina. M.: Izd-vo Mosk. un-ta, 1957.
13.Mixajlichenko S.I. Preduprezhdenie nezakonnogo proizvodstva aborta: ugolovno-pravovoj i kriminologiches-kij aspekty`: avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2013.
14.Naumov A.V. Rossijskoe ugolovnoe pravo. Kurs lekcij: v 3 t. T. 2. Osobennaya chast` (glavy` I–X). 4-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Volters Kluver, 2010.
15.Ognerubov N.A. Professional`ny`e prestupleniya medicinskix rabotnikov: dis. … kand. yurid nauk. M., 2014.
16.Rashkovskaya Sh.S. Prestupleniya protiv zhizni, zdorov`ya, svobody` i dostoinstva lichnosti: Lekciya dlya studentov VYuZI / pod red. kand. yurid. nauk A.N. Vasil`eva; M-vo vy`ssh. obrazovaniya SSSR; Vsesoyuz. yurid. zaoch. in-t. M., 1956.
17.Smirnov R.Yu. Differenciaciya ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti za prestupleniya protiv zdorov`ya cheloveka v ugolovnom prave Rossii: voprosy` teorii i praktiki: monografiya. Ryazan`: Koncepciya, 2014.
18.Tasakov S., Shumilov A. Iskusstvennoe prery`vanie beremennosti (abort). Ugolovno-pravovy`e aspekty` // Ugolovnoe pravo. 2004. № 2. S. 67–69.
19.Tkachenko V.I. Prestupleniya protiv lichnosti: ucheb. posob. / pod red. B.V. Zdravomy`slova. M.: RIO VYuZI, 1981.
20.Shirokov K.S. Soglasie licza na prichinenie vreda kak obstoyatel`stvo, isklyuchayushhee prestupnost` deyaniya pri provedenii iskusstvennogo prery`vaniya beremennosti (aborta) // Medicinskoe pravo. 2015. № 4. S. 53–55.
21.Yani P.S. Konecz prestupleniya // Zakonnost`. 2016. № 10. S. 45–51.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Bulychev E.N.
Features of Criminal Liability for the Illegal Access to Credit (Article 176 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation) and its Compliance with the Constitutional Principle of Equal Protection of All Forms of Property
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to conduct a detailed comparative criminal law analysis of parts one and two of article 176 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation for their compliance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
Methodology: Dialectical, comparative and legalistic methods are used.
Results: The study revealed significant differences in the design of the two parts of the Article 176 of the Criminal Code. Thus, in both parts of the article analyzed, the following features are different: the range of protected interests (the object of the crime); the target of the crime; the circle of persons who may fall under criminal responsibility (the subject of the crime); the circle of persons recognized as victims; the method of committing the crime (the objective side), etc. In addition, the author reveals differency between approach of the legislator to the definition of types and penalties for the illegal access to the ordinary credit and to the state targeted credit. According to the author, many revealed conflicts between the parts of the article violate the constitutional provision on equal protection of all forms of property.
Novelty/originality/value: Based on the analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that the current design of article 176 of the criminal code needs either significant processing or decriminalisation.
Keywords: principle, equality, property, credit, creditor, illegal access to credit, state targeted credit, state, sole proprietor, bank, major damage, sanction, criminal liability.
References (transliterated)
1.Buly`chev E.N. Princip ravenstva i problemy` ego zakrepleniya v Konstitucii Rossijskoj Federacii // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2016. № 2(21) S. 58–62.
2.Metodicheskie rekomendacii po vy`yavleniyu i rassledovaniyu prestuplenij, predusmotrenny`x stat`ej 177 UK RF (zlostnoe uklonenie ot pogasheniya kreditorskoj zadolzhennosti) (utv. FSSP RF 21.08.2013 № 04-12 (red. ot 03.10.2016)).
3.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 27.12.2018 № 533-FZ «O vnesenii izmenenij v stat`i 76.1 i 145.1 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii i Ugolovno-processual`ny`j kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii».
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Valeev M.H.
Rehabilitation: The Restoration of the Violated Labor Rights
Purpose: This paper aims to study the application of the provisions of the criminal procedure law providing for the restoration of labor rights of citizens in the process of his rehabilitation.
Methodology: Common scientific and specific methods of research, in particular, systemic-structural and comparative methods and sociological analysis of judicial and investigatory practice, were used.
Results: The article describes the main problems encountered in the process of restoration of labor rights of citizens having the right to rehabilitation. Recommendations on the issues not covered by the current legislation are also being given.
Novelty/originality/value: The paper possesses a certain degree of novelty in connection with the analysis of the recently adopted Ruling No. 45-P of December 19th, 2018, of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. The practical significance of this study is determined by the recommendations made by the author on the resolution of certain matters not regulated by the current legislation.
Keywords: rehabilitation, employment, dismissal, restoration, reparation, compensation.
References (transliterated)
1.Valeev M.X., Xaty`pov R.N., Taziev D.A. Problemy` vosstanovleniya prav pri reabilitacii v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve: ucheb. posob. Ufa: RIO BashGU, 2005.
2.Zaxarov V.N., Cybulenko A.P. Primenenie analogii pri razreshenii trudovy`x sporov // Rossijskaya yusticiya. Yurist. 2008. № 3.
3.Korchagina L.I. K voprosu o ponyatii i sushhnosti reabilitacionny`x pravootnoshenij v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve Rossii // Aktual`ny`e voprosy` rossijskogo prava. 2015. № 7(56).
4.Kuzneczova A.D. Vosstanovlenie trudovy`x i iny`x prav reabilitirovannogo // Ugolovny`j process. 2016. № 6 (138).
5.Nekotory`e problemy` instituta reabilitacii v ugolovnom processe Rossijskoj Federacii // Vestnik Permskogo instituta FSIN Rossii. 2016. № 2(21).
6.Ostrikova L.K. Problemy` vozmeshheniya ushherba, prichinennogo dolzhnostny`mi liczami pri osushhestvlenii ugolovno-processual`noj deyatel`nosti: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 1994.
7.Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii ot 19 dekabrya 2018 goda № 45-P.
8.Postanovlenie Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii ot 29 noyabrya 2011 goda № 17 «O praktike primeneniya sudami norm glavy` 18 Ugolovno-processual`nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii, reglamentiruyushhix reabilitaciyu v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve».
9.Taziev D.A. Reabilitaciya na dosudebnom proizvodstve po ugolovny`m delam: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2005.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Solyanichenko O.S.
Formation of The Legal Basis of The Procedural Activities of Advocate In Civil Proceedings
In The Russian Federation
Purpose: To show the formation of the legal basis of the procedural activities of advocate in civil proceedings in the dynamics of changes in the law on the bar and determine their target direction.
Methodology: The authors used methods of analysis and synthesis, as well as legalistic and comparative approaches.
Results: The article shows the dynamics of changes in certain aspects of the legal regulation of the procedural activities of advocate in civil proceedings by analyzing the material of changes and amendments to the law on the bar. It is established that changes in legislation aim to regulate only two aspects of procedural activity in civil proceedings: advocate’s inquiry and the self-regulation within the advocate entities. The incomplete nature of transformations of the regulatory norms on the lawyer’s request and the internal corporate set of standards of advocate activities is also shown.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a certain scientific value, as it offers a new definition of the direction of changes in the law on the bar and the procedural activities of a lawyer in civil proceedings.
Keywords: advocacy, civil procedure, law on advocacy, advocate’s inquiry, standards of advocacy.
References (transliterated)
1.Amel`kov N.S. Ponyatie kvalificirovannoj yuridi-cheskoj pomoshhi v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve Rossii // Molodoj ucheny`j. 2013. № 6.
2.Bardin L.N. V zakon ob advokatskoj deyatel`nosti vneseny` izmeneniya // Advokatskaya praktika. 2005. № 2.
3.Buly`chev E.N., Parvazova D.R. Problemy` realizacii advokatom prava na poluchenie svedenij i informacii posredstvom advokatskogo zaprosa // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2017. № 2 (27).
4.Burobin V.N. Advokatskaya deyatel`nost`: ucheb.-praktich. posob. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: E`KMOS, 2003. S. 112.
5.Garmy`shev Ya.V. K voprosu o kvalificirovannoj yuridicheskoj pomoshhi v Rossii // Sibirskij yuridicheskij vestnik. 2012. № 1 (56).
6.Ivanov A.V. Advokatskij zapros: soderzhanie i problemy` realizacii // Advokat. 2014. № 4.
7.Obrashhenie o soblyudenii norm Kodeksa professional`noj e`tiki advokata i Standarta osushhestvleniya advokatom zashhity` v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve (prinyato VIII Vserossijskim s``ezdom advokatov 20.04.2017) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://fparf.ru/documents/congress_documents/congress_treatment/37685/.
8.Ragulin A.V. Novy`j zakonoproekt ob advokatskom zaprose ne sposoben dostich` postavlenny`x v nem celej i zadach! // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2016. № 1 (20).
9.Standart osushhestvleniya advokatom zashhity` v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve (prinyat VIII Vserossijskim s``ezdom advokatov 20.04.2017) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://fparf.ru/documents/resheniya_komissii_po_etike_i_standartam/37436.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Galimov A.R., Bogomolova I.N., Abramova S.N., Gaus G.S., Kulbitsky B.N.
A Systematic Approach to the Solution of Legal and
Forensic Problems Based on the Experience of a Medical Malpractice Investigation
Purpose: To study the principles of a systematic approach to the identification of types of medical malpractice and to the peculiarities of investigation of such cases, as well as personal responsibility of employers and employees in the health sector.
Methodology: Materials of criminal and civil cases, as well as the pre-trial reports of doctors-experts of the Compulsory Medical Insurance System, were used.
Results: Organizational types of medical malpractice were described in the article, as well as the characteristics of legal and forensic problems arising out of their investigation and the ways of their solution with participation of non-state forensic experts.
Novelty/originality/value: The authors postulate the necessity of extending the competence of forensic experts when answering questions about defects in the health organization, as well as of the mandatory involvement of the state and/or non-state forensic experts when questioning health professionals on «medical cases».
Keywords: system approach, defects of medical care, malfeasance, health organization, non-governmental forensic medical examination.
References (transliterated)
1.Anoxin P.K. Izbranny`e trudy`. Filosofskie aspekty` teorii funkcional`noj sistemy`. M.: Nauka, 1978.
2.Bertalanfi L., fon. Obshhaya teoriya sistem – kriticheskij obzor // Issledovaniya po obshhej teorii sistem: sbornik perevodov / obshh. red. i vst. st. V.N. Sadovskogo i E`.G. Yudina. M.: Progress, 1969. S. 23–82.
3.Blauberg I.V., Sadovskij V.N., Yudin E`.G. Filosofskij princip sistemnosti i sistemny`j podxod // Voprosy` filosofii. 1978. № 8. S. 39–52.
4.Bogomolova I.N. Rol` sistemnogo podxoda v usta-novlenii sudebno-gistologicheskogo diagnoza // Sudebno-medicinskaya e`kspertiza. 2014. T. 57. № 5. S. 7–12.
5.Bojko A.I. Sistema i struktura ugolovnogo prava: v 3 t. T. I. Sistemologiya i strukturalizm v sovremennoj poznavatel`noj kul`ture. Rostov n/D: Izd-vo Yuzhnogo feder. un-ta, 2007.
6.Grigor`ev I.Yu. Sistemny`j analiz normativno-pravovogo obespecheniya regional`nogo zdravooxraneniya: dis. … d-ra med. nauk. Tula, 2004.
7.Mal`cev G.V. Social`ny`e osnovaniya prava. M.: Norma, 2011.
8.Medik V.A., Yur`ev V.K. Obshhestvennoe zdorov`e i zdravooxranenie: uchebnik. M.: Professional, 2009.
9.Obrazhiev K.V. Sistemny`j podxod v yurisprudencii: teoretiko-metodologicheskie osnovy` // Vestnik LGU im. A.S. Pushkina. 2012. T. 2. № 1. S. 89–96.
10.Romanov V.N. Sistemny`j analiz dlya inzhenerov. 2-e izd., dop. SPb.: SZGZTU, 2006.
11.Uemov A. I. Sistemny`j podxod i obshhaya teoriya sistem. M.: My`sl`, 1978.
12.Federal`ny`j zakon Rossijskoj Federacii ot 21 noyabrya 2011 g. № 323-FZ «Ob osnovax oxrany` zdorov`ya grazhdan v Rossijskoj Federacii».
13.Xoll A.D., Fejdzhin R.E. Opredelenie ponyatiya sistemy` // Issledovaniya po obshhej teorii sistem: sbornik perevodov s pol`sk. i angl. M.: Progress, 1969. S. 252–286.
14.Yudin E`.G. Sistemny`j podxod i princip deyatel`nosti: Metodologicheskie problemy` sovremennoj nauki. M.: Nauka, 1978.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Bagreeva E.G., Kiryanova M.S.
Problems of enforcement of the current Russian legislation in the sphere of corruption
Purpose: This study aims to conduct analysis of the causes that contribute to the occurrence of crimes in the sphere of corruption.
Methodology: Historical, legalistiс and analytical methods were used.
Results: This paper is devoted to the actual causes of corruption crimes. Factors contributing to the emergence of corruption crimes are analysed, as well as methods to combat corruption crimes in order to develop adequate proposals to improve such methods. On the basis of the analysis of corruption crimes, the current problems of their definition are revealed and ways to solve such problems are offered.
Novelty/originality/value: This study has a high scientific value, as it contains analysis of statistics, which has shown a negative trend regarding the growth of the level of corruption in the Russian Federation. Moreover, the authors, based on the analysis of corruption crimes, reveal the actual problems of the definition of such crimes and the ways to solve them.
Keywords: crime, corruption, public administration, law, problems of law enforcement.
References (transliterated)
1.Borodaenko N.V. Problemy` realizacii antikorrupcionnogo zakonodatel`stva v sfere gosudarstvennoj vlasti. 2009 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/problemy-realizatsii-antikorruptsionnogo-zakonodatelstva-v-sfere-gosudarstvennoy-vlasti.
2.Matvejchev O., Akopyan A. «Mify` o korrupcii». M.: Knizhny`j mir, 2018.
3.Volkov V.F. Korrupciya i ee osobennosti v institutax tamozhennogo administrirovaniya: ucheb. posob. [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL http://www.intermedia-publishing.ru/Volkov_Corruption.html.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Murodzoda A.A.
Reforming the basis for improving the structurally functional organization of the judiciary of Tajikistan
Purpose: To study some legal problems of the conducted judicial and legal reforms in Tajikistan, which became the basis for a change in the structurally functional organization of the judiciary.
Methodology: Formal legal and comparative legal methods were used.
Results: The article concluded that the principles of building courts, the structural and functional organization of the judicial system of the country, normative legal acts regulating the organization and activities of the judiciary, were the subject of reform and improvement in the framework of the judicial reforms. The formation of the military collegium, judicial collegiums on family and administrative offenses as part of the Supreme Court, in the court of Dushanbe and regional courts pursued the goal of more efficient and effective protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen.
Novelty/originality/value: The novelty of the article lies in the fact that the author conducted a study of the main structural and functional changes in the judiciary in Tajikistan.
Keywords: the judiciary of Tajikistan, judicial legal reform, improving the structural, functional organization of the judiciary, modernization of the justice system.
References (transliterated)
1.Grebennikov V.V. Institucional`ny`e voprosy` razvitiya i sovershenstvovaniya sudebnoj sistemy` Rossijskoj Federacii // Obrazovanie i pravo. 2016. № 1 (yanvar`). S. 146–154.
2.Dzhuraev S.A. Osobennosti organizacii sudebnoj sistemy` Respubliki Tadzhikistan: avtoref. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2007.
3.Konstitucionny`j zakon Respubliki Tadzhikistan «O sudax Respubliki Tadzhikistan» № 1328 ot 23 iyulya 2016 goda.
4.Ukaz Prezidenta Respubliki Tadzhikistan «O likvidacii Soveta yusticii Respubliki Tadzhikistan» № 698 ot 23 iyulya 2016 goda // Oficial`ny`j sajt Prezidenta Respubliki Tadzhikistan [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: www.president.tj.
5.Xodzhaeva N.B. Sudebnaya sistema Respubliki Tadzhikistan kak vetv` gosudarstvennoj vlasti do momenta prinyatiya programm sudebno-pravovoj reformirovaniya v Tadzhikistane: na tadzh. yaz. // Zakonodatel`stvo. 2014. № 3 (15).
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Krainova N.A.
Resocialization in the unified legislation system on counteraction of crime
Purpose: To study the theoretical and practical aspects of determining the place of resocialization in the system of unified legislation on combating crime.
Methodology: Dialectical, system-structural and logical methods were used.
Results: The article considers the resocialization in the system of the unified legislation on combating crime as a process encompassing social, educational, psychological, pedagogical, medical and other assistance to the perpetrators of crime and victims of crime and the use of security measures that accompany criminal law measures and security measures. Legal relations arising in the process of resocialization should be regulated by the Code of Crime Prevention and Resocialization.
Novelty/originality/value: The novelty of the article lies in the fact that the author forms the concept of resocialization, relating both to the category of prisoners and to the category of victims. Resocialization is understood as a process that encompasses social, educational, psychological, pedagogical, medical, and other assistance to persons who have committed a crime and victims of crimes, the use of security measures.
Keywords: Resocialization, convicted, injured, security, anti-crime.
References (transliterated)
1.Materialy` besedy` 2014. «Pravo bezopasnosti» ot 1 noyabrya 2013 g. // Kriminologiya: vchera, segodnya, zavtra. 2013. № 1 (32). S. 13–50.
2.Shestakov D.A. Teoriya prestupnosti i osnovy` otraslevoj kriminologii: izbr. SPb.: Yuridicheskij centr, 2015. S. 328–339.
3.Babaev M.M. Kriminologicheskie osnovy` ugolovnoj politiki // Sovremennaya ugolovnaya politika: poisk optimal`noj modeli: materialy` Rossijskogo kongressa ugolovnogo prava (31 maya – 1 iyunya 2012 g.). M.: Prospekt, 2012. S. 319–340.
4.Babaev M.M., Pudovochkin Yu.E. Problemy` rossijskoj ugolovnoj politiki: monografiya. M.: Prospekt, 2017. S. 123.
5.Shhedrin N.V. Klyuchevy`e kategorii antikriminal`noj bezopasnosti // Kriminal`ny`e ugrozy` sovremennosti i strategii antikriminal`noj bezopasnosti lichnosti, obshhestva i gosudarstva (2-e Kairzhanovskie chteniya). ch. 1. Almaty`: Kazak universiteti, 2012. S. 203–209.
6.Strategiya nacional`noj bezopasnosti RF. Utverzhdena Ukazom Prezidenta RF ot 31.12.2015 № 683. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
7.Shestakov D.A. Ot «prava bezopasnosti» k edinomu zakonodatel`stvu o protivodejstvii prestupnosti [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.criminologyclub.ru/home/2-forthcoming-sessions/346-2018-09-26-18-57-04.html.
8.Shhedrin N.V. Antikriminal`naya bezopasnost` kak osnova ugolovnoj politiki // Biblioteka ugolovnogo prava i kriminologii. 2014. № 2 (6). S. 116–130.
9.http://rapsinews.ru/human_rights_protection_news/20180123/281724009.html.
10.Shestakov D.A. Ot ponyatiya prestupnosti k kriminologii zakona // Obshhestvenny`e nauki i sovremennost`. 2008. № 6. S. 139–140.
11.Shestakov D.A. Prestupnost` sredi social`ny`x podsistem // Prestupnost` sredi social`ny`x podsistem. Novaya koncepciya i otrasli kriminologii / pod red. D.A. Shestakova. SPb.: Yuridicheskij centr Press. 2003. S. 6–13.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Kalininskaya Y.S., Karpova N.A.
Counteraction Crimes Encroaching on Objects of Cultural Heritage as the Direction of the Russian Criminal Policy
Purpose: To analyze the features of the formation of the main directions of the Russian criminal policy in the field of combating crimes that infringe on the objects of cultural heritage, and to identify the new ways to improve the criminal law and its application in the field of protection of cultural values.
Methodology: Systematic, legalistic, logical, comparative and other methods of scientific research were used.
Results: The paper analyzes the current state of the criminal policy in the field of combating crimes against cultural values and defines its main directions. Positive trends, as well as areas requiring improvement, are highlighted.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a certain scientific value. New directions of criminal policy in the sphere are outlined, what can be used in the improvement of the current criminal legislation of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: criminal policy; crimes against cultural values; criminal legislation; archaeological heritage; legal protection of cultural heritage.
References (transliterated)
1.Gosudarstvenny`j doklad o sostoyanii kul`tury` v Rossijskoj Federacii v 2013 godu [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://mkrf.ru/report/gosoklad/.
2.List F. Uchebnik ugolovnogo prava. Obshhaya chast`: per. s nem. M., 1903. S. 76.
3.Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 17 iyunya 2014 g. № 18-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti chasti chetvertoj stat`i 222 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii i statej 1, 3, 6, 8, 13 i 20 Federal`nogo zakona «Ob oruzhii» // Vestnik Konstitucionnogo Suda RF. 2014. № 5.
4.Obvinitel`ny`j prigovor Sovetskogo rajonnogo suda g. Orla po delu № 1-182/2013 1-5/2014 1-5/2014(1-182/2013;) ot 3 fevralya 2014 g. [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/fyFONe4J72L3/.
5.Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii: uchebnik: v 2 t. T. 1. Obshhaya chast` / pod red. N.G. Kadnikova. M.: ID Yurisprudenciya, 2018.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Murkstis M.I.
Illegal Arms and Ammunition Trafficking in Russia (Genesis and Modern State)
Purpose: To study the genesis of the illegal trafficking of arms and ammunition in the newest period in the history of the Russian state.
Methodology: System, legalistic, historical, comparative and other methods of scientific research were used.
Results: The article analyzes the development and current state of the illegal arms and ammunition trafficking in the Russian state. It is noted that the illegal trafficking of weapons and ammunition has become a nationwide problem simultaneously with the development of the revolutionary movement. Considerable attention is paid to the development of the illegal arms and ammunition trafficking in arms and ammunition in the post-Soviet period. As a result of studying the existing points of view regarding the periodization of such trafficking, the author propose modernization of such periodization.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a certain scientific and practical value, since it deals with topical issues of the theory and practice of law enforcement.
Keywords: weapons, ammunition, illegal trafficking, sources, stages, law enforcement authorities.
References (translfterated)
1.Baranecz V. Genshtab bez tajn. M., 1999. Kn. 1.
2.Baranecz V. Zachem my` delimsya oruzhiem s vragami Rossii // Komsomol`skaya pravda. 2000. 9 iyunya.
3.Vozzhennikov A.V. Nacional`naya bezopasnost`: teoriya, praktika, strategiya. M., 2000.
4.Zagajnova Yu.V. Sostoyanie, struktura i dinamika prestupnosti v sfere nezakonnogo oborota oruzhiya v Vostochno-Sibirskom regione Rossii // Rossijskij sledovatel`. 2006. № 10.
5.Kriminologiya / pod obshh. red. A.I. Dolgovoj. 4-e izd., pererab. i dop. M., 2010.
6.Kriminologiya / pod red. V.D. Malkova. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. M., 2008.
7.Kushniry`k V.V. Nelegal`ny`j (tenevoj, nezakonny`j) oborot strelkovogo oruzhiya i patronov: otraslevy`e ocenki kriminal`noj e`konomiki // Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. 2015. № 5.
8.Luneev V.V. E`poxa globalizacii i prestupnost`. M., 2017.
9.Musaev M.M. Ugolovnaya otvetstvennost` i nakazanie za nezakonnoe izgotovlenie oruzhiya: istoricheskij opy`t i sovremenny`e realii // Problemy` v rossijskom zakonodatel`stve. 2013. № 5. S. 158.
10.Nevskij S.A. Protivodejstvie nezakonnomu oborotu oruzhiya, boepripasov i vzry`vchaty`x veshhestv (istoricheskie, kriminologicheskie i ugolovno-pravovy`e aspekty`). M., 2008.
11.Nikitina O.A. Mezhdunarodno-pravovoe sotrudnichestvo v bor`be s nezakonny`m oborotom oruzhiya: dis. …kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2002.
12.Pavluxin A.N., Skoropupov Yu.I. Ugolovno-pravovy`e i kriminologicheskie voprosy` bor`by` s nezakonny`mi priobreteniem, peredachej, sby`tom, xraneniem, perevozkoj ili nosheniem oruzhiya, ego osnovny`x chastej, boepripasov, vzry`vchaty`x veshhestv i vzry`vny`x ustrojstv. M., 2003.
13.Robak V.A. Sostoyanie i dinamika nezakonnogo oborota oruzhiya v Respublike Kry`m: realii i perspektivy`: materialy` Vserossijskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii (5 fevralya 2016 goda). Krasnodar, 2016.
14.Robak V.A. Sostoyanie i dinamika nezakonnogo oborota oruzhiya v Rossii // Vestnik Vladimirskogo yuridicheskogo instituta. 2016. № 2.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Davidenko
М.А.
The Public Danger of Creating a Criminal Association Specializing in Terrorist and Extremist Activities
Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the criteria for the public danger of acts aimed at creating criminal associations in order to carry out terrorist and extremist activities.
Methodology: Common scientific and special research methods were used (comparative, systematic and sociological methods were used, as well as analysis of materials of criminal cases).
Results: In the course of the study it was proved that the acts defined by Art. 205.4, 205.5, 282.1, 282.2 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation have an increased public danger, which implies the establishment and application of measures of state coercion, characterized by a high degree of severity of exposure.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a high scientific value and carries great practical significance. The provisions contained in the materials of the article can be used to improve the current criminal legislation of the Russian Federation, as well as to define crimes of a terrorist nature.
Keywords: terrorism, extremism, criminal community, criteria of public danger, measures of criminal legal influence, crimes of terrorist and extremist nature.
References (transliterated)
1.Boziev A.T. Obshhestvennoe mnenie v paradigme bor`by` s terrorizmom i e`kstremizmom // «Cherny`e dy`ry`» v rossijskom zakonodatel`stve. 2016. № 1. S. 37–39.
2.Grigor`ev N.Yu., Rodyukov E`.B. Sovremenny`j e`kstremizm i ego social`ny`e posledstviya // Nauka. Kul`tura. Obshhestvo. 2017. № 3–4. S. 121–122.
3.Epifanova E.V. K voprosu o vvedenii kategorii «ugolovny`j prostupok» // Ocherki novejshej kriminalistiki. 2018. № 1. S. 26–34.
4.Zhalinskij A.E`. Obshhestvennaya opasnost` prestupleniya v strukture ugolovno-pravovoj ocenki deyaniya // Izbranny`e trudy`: v 4 t. T. 2. Ugolovnoe pravo. M., 2015. S. 235.
5.Kirilina T.Yu., Fomicheva T.V., Yudina T.N., Dolgorukova I.V. i dr. Ocenka naseleniem terroristicheskoj ugrozy` v regionax Rossijskoj Federacii // Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. 2016. № 3. S. 143.
6.Lazarev D.A., Polonecz I.V. Sociologicheskij analiz obshhestvennogo mneniya rossiyan o probleme e`kstre-mizma // Protivodejstvie e`kstremizmu i terrorizmu: filosofskie, sociologicheskie i politologicheskie aspekty`: materialy` II Vserossijskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii: sbornik nauchny`x statej. Krasnodar, 2015. S. 356–360.
7.Lapshin V.F. Sovershenstvovanie ugolovnogo zakonodatel`stva v usloviyax liberalizacii ugolovnoj politiki Rossii // Vestnik instituta: prestuplenie, nakazanie, ispravlenie. 2010. № 10. S. 8–9.
8.Latov Yu.V. «Internetizaciya» kak faktor molodezhnogo e`kstremizma // Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo oblastnogo gumanitarnogo instituta. Istoriya, filosofiya, politologiya, pravo. 2014. № 1–1. S. 6.
9.Suvorov V.A. Cel` narusheniya mirnogo sosushhestvovaniya gosudarstv i narodov kak priznak akta mezhdunarodnogo terrorizma // Obshhestvo i pravo. 2018. № 3. S. 55–56.
10.Tyazhkova I.M. E`kstremistskie prestupleniya kak posyagatel`stva na vnutrennyuyu bezopasnost` gosudarstva // Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Pravo. 2012. № 4. S. 83.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Сhashin А.N.
Legitimation of the system of sources (forms) of law
Purpose: The author attempts to clarify the mechanism through which various types of sources (forms) of national law are admitted to the law enforcement process.
Methodology: The author has built his theoretical position on the method of materialist dialectics.
Results: The author comes to conclusion that the system of sources (forms) of law is being legitimized through legal doctrine, which, while evolving in a particular society in a certain historical period, forms the theoretical construction of the system of sources (forms) of national law. The implementation of this construct in practice sets the vector for the law enforcement. The difference of theoretical constructs determines the difference of the dominant sources (forms) of law for different legal families.
Novelty/originality/value: The doctrine of the legitimization of sources (forms) of law is analyzed by the author for the first time.
Keywords: legal doctrine; judicial precedent; legal science; primary norm.
References (transliterated)
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POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
Bagreeva E.G., Minich D.S.
Institutional Trends of the Impact of Migration Processes
Purpose: To study the impact of migration on all spheres of society and the state.
Methodology: Historical, legalistic and analytical methods was used.
Results: The article highlightes the socio-cultural problems of infitration, layering and rejection of insulariy, which are caused by the migration processes. The article analyzes 2 types of cultures: the culture of individualism and of collectivism, showing the pros and cons of each of them. It is the conflict of cultures that lies at the heart of interstate problems, because people always try to preserve their roots and their identity even after changing their place of residence. The article considers a variety of ways of conducting migration policy, which is carried out taking into account the needs of the labor market, the economic situation in the country and the mood in society. On the example of Germany, the United States, the Russian Federation and other countries, a different attitude towards migrants is shown.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a high scientific value, because it attempts to consider the institutional trends of the impact of migration processes. This topic is relevant today, in the age of globalization and high migration.
Keywords: migration processes, institutional trends, conflict of cultures.
References (transliterated)
1.United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017). International Migration Report 2017: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/404).
2.Bagreeva E.G. Sociokul`turny`e osnovy` resocializacii prestupnikov: dis. ... d-ra yurid. nauk. M., 2001.
3.Bagreeva E.G. Ob e`tnokul`turny`x prichinax prestupnosti // Vestnik instituta: prestuplenie, nakazanie, ispravlenie. 2013. № 2.
4.Sellin T. Culture Conflict and Crime. N.-Y., 1938.
5.Cohen A. Delinqent Boys, The Culture of the Gang Glencoe. N.-Y., 1955.
6.Kapuscinskij R. Stolknovenie kul`tur i identichnosti. Sociologicheskie aspekty` mul`tikul`turalizma v e`poxu obshhestvenny`x peremen // Kul`turno-istoricheskaya psixologiya. 2008. № 4 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://psyjournals.ru/kip/2008/n4/Bodziany_full.shtml/
7.https://www.gazeta.ru/politics/2018/07/05_a_ 11827555.shtml.
8.https://russian.rt.com/world/news/565143-ssha-granica-karavan-migrantov.

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