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HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE
Bykadorova E.V.
Concept of Physical Evidence: Logic of Historical Development
Purpose: On the basis of historical facts to identify the vector of historical development of the concept of physical evidence.
Methodology: Historical and legalistic methods, as well as method of analysis of documents and legal texts, were used in the work on the research topic.
Results: On the example of the history of legislative development of the use of physical evidence in Russia, it is shown that the concept of physical evidence has developed in stages, the forms and principles of work with physical evidence have been gradually improving. The author denotes the logic of historical development of the concept of material evidence as an evolutionary development: from subjective and primitive methods of proving to more objective and reliable.
Novelty/originality/value: The history of the legal concept of physical evidence is presented as a single process with its own laws of development. The author introduces the important source of the science of criminal process – «Criminal Legislation Draft», compiled in the reign of Elizabeth of Russia (1754), with later amendments. The periodization of the development of the concept of physical evidence is presented.
Keywords: criminal process of Russia, concept of evidence, proving, physical evidence, forensics, crime scene, the monuments of law.
References (transliterated)
1.Bezverxov A.G., Korostelyov V.S. Proekt Ugolovnogo ulozheniya Rossijskoj Imperii 1813 goda. Samara: Samarskij universitet, 2013.
2.By`kadorova E.V. Istoriya razvitiya instituta veshhe-stvenny`x dokazatel`stv v ugolovnom processe Rossii // Yuridicheskij fakt. 2018. № 33. S. 21–25.
3.Vanyavin D.V. Istoriya razvitiya instituta veshhest-venny`x dokazatel`stv v ugolovnom processe Rossii // Aktual`ny`e problemy` rossijskogo prava. 2009. № 2 (11). S. 287–293.
4.Istoriya zakonodatel`stva SSSR i RSFSR po ugolovnomu processu i organizacii suda i prokuratury`: sb. dokumentov. M., 1955.
5.Linovskij V.A. Opy`t istoricheskix razy`skanij o sledstvennom ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve v Rossii. M.: LeksE`st, 2001.
6.Lunin S.V. Sistema dokazatel`stv po Stoglavu // Voprosy` e`konomiki i prava. 2013. № 2. S. 12–14.
7.Proekty` ugolovnogo ulozheniya 1754–1766 godov. Novoulozhennoj knigi chast` vtoraya: o rozy`skny`x delax i kakie za razny`e zlodejstva i prestupleniya kazni, nakazaniya i shtrafy` polozheny`. SPb.: Tipografiya M.M. Stasyulevicha, 1882.
8.Prokof`eva S.M. Stanovlenie i razvitie instituta dokazatel`stv v Rossii // Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. 2013. № 2 (58). S. 102–107.
9.Sobornoe Ulozhenie 1649 goda. Tekst. Kommentarii. L.: Nauka, 1987.
10.Staroverova E.V. Novy`j vzglyad na «vidokov» i «posluxov» Russkoj pravdy` // Rossijskoe gosudarstvovedenie. 2018. № 2. S. 21–27.
11.Ustav ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva 1864 g. // Rossijskoe zakonodatel`stvo X–XX vv.: v 9 t. T. 8. Sudebnaya reforma. M.: Yuridicheskaya literatura, 1991. S. 120–249.
12.Xudyakova Yu.V. E`volyuciya ponyatiya «veshhestven-ny`e dokazatel`stva» v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve Rossii do vvedeniya UPK RSFSR 1960 goda // Vestnik Chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2006. № 2. S. 84–87.
13.Chel`czov-Bebutov M.A. Kurs ugolovno-proces-sual`nogo prava. Ocherki po istorii suda i ugolovnogo processa v rabovladel`cheskix, feodal`ny`x i burzhuazny`x gosudarstvax. SPb., 1995.

PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Ragulin A.V.
Problems of Terminology in Advocacy: On the «Genre» and the Content of the Public Call of 32 Advocates Addressed to the Chairman of the Investigative Committee of The Russian Federation
Purpose: To determine the legal qualification of the public call of 32 advocates addressed to the Chairman of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation.
Methodology: Formal and linguistic methods, as well as method of analysis of documents and legal texts were used in the work on the research topic.
Results: It is concluded that the public call of 32 advocates aimed to ensure an objective and timely investigation by the Investigative Committee of Russia of all data on financial and other abuses of representatives of the management bodies of the Bar Association of the Republic of Bashkortostan does not have all the essential features of «denunciation», and therefore can not be qualified as a denunciation. According to its legal status, this call should be considered a statement of a group of citizens in the form of report on the shortcomings in the work of state bodies and their officials and criticism of the activities of these bodies and officials.
Novelty/originality/value: The paper has scientific and practical value, as it deals with the topic, previously unanalyzed problem caused by the events that occurred in the recent history of the Russian advocacy.
Keywords: advocacy, advocate activities, professional ethics of an advocate.
References (transliterated)
1.http://gramota.ru/slovari/info/abr/.
2.http://ufa-news.net/other/2019/03/07/195791.html.
3.http://journalufa.com/page,1,2,25284-rossiyskie-advokaty-prosyat-skr-rassledovat-zloupotrebleniya-v-advokatskoy-palate-rb.html.
4.https://www.idelreal.org/a/29806888.html.
5.http://ufa.bezformata.com/listnews/zloupotrebleniya-v-advokatskoj/73337743/.
6.https://123ru.net/smi/journalufa-com/190800399/.
7.https://avidreaders.ru/download/tolkovyy-slovar-russkogo-yazyka-1.html?f=pdf 
8.https://onlinedic.net/efremova/page/word21320.php.
9.http://gramota.ru/slovari/info/abr/.
10.https://legal.report/yuristy-s-pomocshyu-fsb-provodyat-zachistki-v-advokature/.
11.https://legal.report/zampreda-kvalifkomissii-ap-sudyat-za-torgovlyu-advokatskim-statusom/.
12.https://legal.report/zampred-kvalifkomissii-ap-prodaval-advokatskij-status-za-250-000-rub/.
13.https://legal.report/zampred-kvalifkomissii-ap-zarabotal-yuridicheskij-stazh-kriminalnym-putem/.
14.https://onlinedic.net/efremova/page/word21320.php.
15.https://pravo.ru/news/201732/?desc_search=.
16.https://proufu.ru/news/novosti/54719-glavnogo_advokata_bashkirii_obvinili_v_zloupotrebleniyakh_i_semeystvennosti/?sphrase_id=81706288.
17.https://proufu.ru/news/novosti/58439-figuranty_gromkikh_ugolovnykh_del_zayavili_chto_ikh_prosili_ogovorit_yurista_vitaliya_burkina/?sphrase_id=81706724.
18.https://proufu.ru/news/novosti/61405-v_advokatskoy_palate_bashkirii_ozhidaetsya_ocherednoy_skandal/?sphrase_id=81706724.
19.https://proufu.ru/news/novosti/68491-semeystvennost_i_zloupotrebleniya_konflikt_vokrug_glavnogo_advokata_bashkirii_nabiraet_oboroty/?sphrase_id=81706288.
20.https://proufu.ru/news/novosti/72279-sud_skryvaet_ot_proufu_isk_prezidenta_advokatskoy_palaty_bashkirii/?sphrase_id=81706288.
21.https://proufu.ru/news/novosti/72483-bashkirskiy_romeo_idet_pod_sud_yumadilov_ostaetsya_na_svobode/?sphrase_id=81706288.
22.https://proufu.ru/news/novosti/73466-yuristy_i_obshchestvenniki_bashkirii_vystupayut_protiv_ap_rb/?sphrase_id=80548914.
23.https://proufu.ru/news/society/41431-advokatov_bashkirii_obyazali_soglasovyvat_svoi_vystupleniya_v_smi_/?sphrase_id=81706375.
24.https://proufu.ru/news/society/54301-v_dele_advokata_burkina_poyavilis_novye_skandalnye_podrobnosti/?sphrase_id=81706288.
25.https://proufu.ru/news/society/54943-glavnyy_advokat_bashkirii_ostalsya_bez_dissertatsii/?sphrase_id=81706375.
26.https://proufu.ru/news/society/68071-v_ufe_po_podozreniyu_v_podkupe_zaderzhan_eshche_odin_zamestitel_respublikanskoy_kollegii_advokatov_/?sphrase_id=81706724.
27.https://proufu.ru/news/society/69839-advokaty_obratilis_k_ministru_yustitsii_rossii_s_prosboy_proverit_minyust_bashkirii_/?sphrase_id=81706329.
28.https://proufu.ru/news/society/70700-advokaty_bashkirii_prosyat_presech_davlenie_yumadilova_na_sud/?sphrase_id=81706288.
29.https://proufu.ru/news/society/71400-chto_obedinyaet_gulshat_khamitovu_i_bulata_yumadilova/?sphrase_id=81706329.
30.https://proufu.ru/news/society/75631-lipovye_advokatskie_statusy_v_bashkirii_ugroza_dlya_sudebnoy_sistemy/?sphrase_id=81706288.
31.https://proufu.ru/news/society/75792-vypuskniki_yurfaka_vyshli_na_pikety_protiv_korruptsii_v_advokatskoy_palate_rb/?sphrase_id=81706724.
32.https://proufu.ru/news/society/78639-zolotaya_teshcha_glavnogo_advokata_bashkirii/?sphrase_id=81706762.
33.https://proufu.ru/news/society/79207-ufimskiy_advokat_vitaliy_burkin_obratilsya_v_espch_posle_lisheniya_svoego_statusa/?sphrase_id=81706724.
34.https://ufagate.wordpress.com/2019/02/23/v-ufe-pojmali-posrednika-zhelavshego-ku/.
35.https://www.facebook.com/genrireznik/posts/1266321160201409.
36.https://www.facebook.com/groups/472972236246826/?fref=nf%20.
37.https://www.facebook.com/mbenyash/posts/2247987132195535?hc_location=ufi.
38.https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=2214390148600386&id=100000882683494.
39.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zWqmZamDKeY&feature=&fbclid=IwAR37K36M82PKPDSkcnJj9SKnPCozIw2f4s94BhfxHD1jHUYHnae_Q4Uqc7M.
40.Vasyakin S.A., Shavin V.A. Memorandum (obrashhenie) po voprosu zashhity` prav advokatov v svyazi s obrashheniem v sledstvenny`e organy` [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=448695309206329&set=pcb.2325277534422297&type=3&theater&ifg=1/.
 
PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Pastukhov M.I.
Belarusian Advocacy Needs an Improvement
Purpose: To analyze the effectiveness of the legal regulation of the institution of advocacy in the Republic of Belarus.
Methodology: Legalistic and historical methods were used.
Results: A comprehensive analysis of the law and practice of the Belarusian advocacy was carried out, proposals were made to improve the legislation, taking into account European and Russian experience.
Novelty/originality/value: The paper expresses the author’s approach to the organization and activities of advocacy in Belarus, notably his opinion that there is a lack of opportunities for effective protection of the rights of citizens in criminal proceedings.
Keywords: lawyer, advocacy, rights of advocate, guarantees of advocacy, municipal advocacy.
References (transliterated)
1.Bogolejko A.M. Sushhestvovanie nezavisimoj advokatury` – neobxodimy`j priznak social`nogo pravovogo gosudarstva // Konstitucionny`e osnovy` razvitiya pravovogo social`nogo gosudarstva v Respublike Belarus` /
pod red. G.A. Vasilevicha, P.G. Nikitenko. Minsk: Vy`she`jshaya shkola, 2018. S. 142–156.
2.Martinovich I.I. Novacii reformy` advokatury` v Belarusi i Rossii v postsovetskij period (sravnitel`no-pravovoj aspekt) // Pravo i demokratiya: sb. nauch. tr. Minsk: BGU, 2004. S. 236–239.
3.Gromov I.A., Dobry`nin P.M., Kosarev I.A., Ragulin A.V. K voprosu ob ocenke obosnovannosti dovodov protiv vvedeniya «advokatskoj monopolii» v Rossijskoj Federacii // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2017. № 4.
 
PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Melnichenko R.G.
Ways of Financial Optimization of the Functioning of Advocates’ Self-Management Bodies
Purpose: This study aims to establish principles and methods of reducing the financial burden of the maintenance of advocates’ self-management bodies.
Methodology: Statistical, hermeneutic and comparative methods were used.
Results: The author proposes three principles and nine methods of reducing the financial burden of maintenance of advocates’ self-management bodies.
Novelty/originality/value: The novelty of the paper lies not only in the absence of similar scientific publications on the topic, but also in the very statement of need for financial optimization of the work of advocates’ self-management bodies. Scientific and applied nature of the study point to its originality, while the scientific generalizations and proposals points to its scientific value.
Keywords: advocacy, legal authorities, financial optimization, transparency, estimates.
References (transliterated)
1.Byudzhet Advokatskoj palaty` Kaliningradskoj oblasti [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.palatakd.ru/content/news/1990/?fbclid=IwAR1oqv03b4sd8HPzGtBrfHDxPQXdc3OY2md8hTplerCSk8nwB1tgJH7KBDI/.
2.Byudzhet Advokatskoj palaty` Udmurtskoj respubliki [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://apur.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1072%3Aakt-proverki-finansovo-khozyajstvennoj-deyatelnosti-no-advokatskaya-palata-udmurtskoj-respubliki-i-ee-organov-za-period-s-1-yanvarya-2017-goda-po-1-yanvarya-2018-goda&catid=93&Itemid=18&fbclid=IwAR2nl_bBF3HyTRi8xLGD2Ydz_J3TtcWtsFRKMfUmFRP-1Ltvtx_L2AeuNK8/.
3.Mel`nichenko R.G. Realizaciya trebovanij ob obyazatel`nom povy`shenii kvalifikacii advokatov // Pravo i obrazovanie. 2009. № 3. S. 47–57.
4.Orlova L.N. Informacionnaya prozrachnost` kak paradigma ustojchivogo razvitiya e`konomicheskix sistem // MIR (Modernizaciya. Innovacii. Razvitie). 2015. № 4–2 (24).
5.Parlamentskie slushaniya na temu «Sovershenstvovanie Federal`nogo zakona «Ob advokatskoj deyatel`nosti i advokature v Rossijskoj Federacii» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://youtu.be/AhGgHH_ZKrs.
6.Reglament Soveta Saxalinskoj advokatskoj palaty`. Utverzhden Resheniem Soveta Saxalinskoj advokatskoj palaty` 23.08.2016.
7.Smeta rasxodov i doxodov Saxalinskoj advokatskoj palaty` na period s 01.10.2018 po 01.10.2019.
8.Shtatnoe raspisanie Advokatskoj palaty` Volgogradskoj oblasti [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: palaty` http://www.apvo-volgograd.ru/shtat.php.
9.https://www.arendator.ru/articles/155292-gde_rabotat_plyusy_i_minusy_ofisov_v_centre_i_na_okrainah_moskvy/.
 
PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Korotkova P.E.
Legislative Regulation of the Bar Exam Process in the Context of Computerisation of the Russian Advocacy:Problems and Possibilities
Purpose: To research the legislative regulation of the bar exam process for the sake of its unitizing in the context of computerisation of the Russian advocacy.
Methodology: Legalistic, comparative and historical methods were used in this article.
Results: The author provides insight to an up-to-date legislative regulation of the bar exam process and formulates a number of conclusions proved by this study. These conclusions concrern the standardization of a system of a knowledge evaluation of these applying for bar qualification in the context of computerisation of the advocacy of Russia.
Novelty/originality/value: The importance and the value of this article lie in the fact that the author reveals a problem in a legislation in power, more specifically in a legislative regulation of the bar exam process in the context of computerisation of the advocacy of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: advocacy, bar exam process, digital economy, IT (digital) ecosystem of an advocacy.
References (transliterated)
1.Advokatskaya deyatel`nost` / pod obshh. red. kand. yurid. nauk V.N. Burobina. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Statut, 2005. S. 49. 
2.Artemov V.M. Nravstvennost` i pravo: ucheb. posob. M.: Prospekt, 2018. 
3.Burobin V.N., Vlasov A.A. i dr. Advokatskaya deyatel`nost`: ucheb.-praktich. posob. / red. V.N. Burobin. M.: Statut, 2005. S. 61.
4.Korotkova P.E. Oxrana advokatskoj tajny` v Rossii // Ucheny`e trudy` Rossijskoj akademii advokatury`. 2008. № 6 (11). S 16–21. 
5.Korotkova P.E. Stanovlenie, razvitie i funkcionirovanie instituta advokatskoj tajny` (na primere Rossii i ryada zarubezhny`j stran): dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2009. S. 139. 
6.Novak D. Uchity`vat` mnenie korporacii // Advokatskaya gazeta. 2019. № 5 (286). 1–15 marta. S. 2.
7.Plan raboty` Federal`noj palaty` advokatov Rossijskoj Federacii na pervoe polugodie 2006 goda // Vestnik Federal`noj palaty` advokatov. 2005. № 4. S. 7. 
8.Pospelov O.V. Formy` advokatskix obrazovanij: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2008. S. 38–42. 
9.Poyasnitel`naya zapiska k proektu federal`nogo zakona «O vnesenii izmenenij v Federal`ny`j zakon «Ob advokatskoj deyatel`nosti i advokature v Rossijskoj Federacii» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://asozd2c.duma.gov.ru/addwork/scans.nsf/ID/EA0DE0B6D326BAD043258291004AD5F6/$FILE/469485-7_18052018_469485-7.PDF?OpenElement.
10.Organizaciya advokatury` v sovremenny`x evropejskix gosudarstvax // Yuridicheskij vestnik. T. 6. № IX-XII. M.: Moskovskoe yuridicheskoe obshhestvo, 1890. S. 245. 
11.Steshenko L.A., Shamba T.M. Advokatura v Rossijskoj Federacii. 2-e izd., pererab. M.: Norma, 2005. S. 27. 
12.Xaski Yu. Rossijskaya advokatura i sovremennoe gosudarstvo. M.: Rossijskaya akademiya nauk, Institut gosudarstva i prava, 1993. S. 36.
 
PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Aksenov A.N.
Overcoming prejudice, or a shot from the shadow
Purpose: To study the objectification of opinions placed on lawyers on the Internet.
Methodology: Formal legal, comparative legal and analytical methods were used.
Results: On the basis of his own negative experience of influencing the reputation of a lawyer of anonymous reviews posted on the Internet, the author comes to the conclusion that there has been a long-term update of the legislation regulating information issues.
Novelty/originality/value: The relevance of the article is due to the assumptions of the introduction of a single authorized source of information resources on the activities of lawyers and the lawyer community. According to the author, the regulatory and legal promulgation of such mechanisms will allow objectifying information posted about lawyers on the Internet, at the same time increasing the level of digitalization of the lawyer community, which corresponds to modern global trends.
Keywords: reputation as a lawyer, slander, reviews on the Internet.
References (transliterated)
1.Aksenov A.N. Dosudebnoe sotrudnichestvo po ugolovnomu delu: vozmozhna li obratnaya sila zakona? // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 2019. № 1. S. 58–61.
2.By`kov A.V., Tokmakov A.A. Ugolovno-pravovaya zashhita advokata: neobxodimy` novacii // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2017. № 1 (26). S. 68–71.
3.Vladimir Putin. Vy`stuplenie na mezhdunarodnoj konferencii «Vpered v budushhee: rol` i mesto Rossii» 10 noyabrya 2016 g. [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.kremlin.ru.
4.Zolotoj telenok: roman // Il`f I., Petrov E. Sobr. soch.: v 5 t. T. 2. M.: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel`stvo xudozhestvennoj literatury`, 1961.
5.Koni A.F. Ugolovny`j process: nravstvenny`e nachala. M.: Izd-vo SGU, 2000. 
6.Merkacheva E. Advokata Dobrovinskogo bespokoyat lobkovy`e vshi. Kodeks beschestiya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL://https://www.mk.ru/social/2018/09/17/advokata-dobrovinskogo-bespokoyat-lobkovye-vshi.html.
7.Ragulin A.V., Ragulina I.T. Zamechaniya po proektu standarta osushhestvleniya advokatom zashhity` v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2017. №1 (26). S. 39–41.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Avdeeva E.V., Tamaev R.S.
Bail in the Mechanism of Regulating Criminal Procedure Relations
Purpose: To study the characteristics of the use of the bail as a preventive measure on the basis of generalization of materials of judicial practice and scientific positions of specialists in the field of criminal proceedings.
Methodology: General and special methods of research were used (comparative and system approaches, sociological analysis of materials of criminal cases, and others).
Results: The article discusses the procedural issues of the use of the bail as a preventive measure, the specifics of replacing it with more stringent preventive measures, the consequences of violation of obligations during the period of bail as a preventive measure.
Novelty/originality/value: The paper has a high scientific value and carries significant practical significance. The provisions of the paper can be used to improve the current criminal legislation of the Russian Federation, to develop new explanations of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, as well as in the process of applying the bail as a preventive measure.
Keywords: bail as a preventive measure, appeal of pledge to state income, violation of pledge obligations.
References (transliterated)
1.Avdeev V.A., Avdeeva O.A. Novy`e tendencii ugolovno-pravovoj politiki RF v sfere protivodejstviya prestupleniyam korrupcionnoj napravlennosti // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 2017. № 5. S. 2–4.
2.Avdeev V.A., Avdeeva O.A. Protivodejstvie korrupcionnoj prestupnosti v RF v kontekste implementacii norm mezhdunarodnogo prava // Yuridicheskoe obrazovanie i nauka. 2016. № 3. S. 135–139.
3.Axtar`yanov A. Celi primeneniya zaloga kak mery` presecheniya v ugolovnom processe // Alleya nauki. 2018. T. 8. № 5. S. 957–977.
4.Novikova O.V. Problemy` primeneniya mery` presecheniya v vide zaloga v ugolovnom processe // Vestnik Yuridicheskogo instituta MIIT. 2018. № 1(21). S. 82–86.
5.Opredelenie Verxovnogo Suda № 89-O08-88 ot 30.01.2009, Sudebnaya kollegiya po ugolovny`m delam, kassaciya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http: cdep.ru.
6.Postanovlenie № 22-1180/2018 22K-1180/2018 3/1-25/2018 ot 8 avgusta 2018 g. po delu № 22-1180/2018 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http: cdep.ru.
7.Reshenie Verxovnogo Suda: Opredelenie № 50-O12-37, Sudebnaya kollegiya po ugolovny`m delam, kassaciya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http: cdep.ru.
8.Reshenie Verxovnogo Suda: Opredelenie № 9-D09-25, Sudebnaya kollegiya po ugolovny`m delam, nadzor [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http: cdep.ru.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Bagischev O.A.
Analysis of Regional Problems of Privatization of Service Housing
Purpose: To analyze the existing problems of law enforcement practice in the field of privatization of service housing, identify the problems of law enforcement practice in the field of privatization of service housing and offer possible solutions.
Methodology: Analysis, synthesis and scientific abstraction were applied in this study. As an object of research in the paper the conditions of privatization of office premises in municipalities of Tula and Chelyabinsk are chosen.
Results: Based on the analysis of judicial practice, the author identifies the shortcomings in the conditions of privatization of service housing owned by these municipalities, which can lead to infringement of the legal rights of citizens, and suggests possible ways to eliminate such shortcomings.
Novelty/originality/value: The paper has a certain scientific value, as it is one of the first attempts to analyze the privatization of service housing in various municipalities.
Keywords: privatization, office premises, conditions of privatization, judicial practice.
References (transliterated)
1.Poryadok privatizacii sluzhebny`x zhily`x pomeshhenij, naxodyashhixsya v sobstvennosti municipal`nogo obrazovaniya goroda Tuly`, utverzhdenny`j Resheniem Tul`skoj gorodskoj Dumy` ot 23.10.2013 № 66/1513.
2.Postanovlenie ot 12 iyulya 2013 goda № 169-p Ob utverzhdenii administrativnogo reglamenta predostavleniya municipal`noj uslugi «Prinyatie resheniya o privatizacii sluzhebnogo zhilogo pomeshheniya municipal`nogo zhilishhnogo fonda goroda Chelyabinska».
 
HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Kalyuzhnyi A.N., Karpushkin O.S.
Constitutional Right to Individual Liberty of and its Realization in the Legislation of Modern Russia
Purpose: To analyze institutional consolidation of the right to individual liberty in the legal system of the Russian Federation.
Methodology: Systematic, comparative and ntegrated approaches were used, as well as method of modelling.
Results: A classification of legal acts in the sphere of proclaiming and securing the right to individual liberty is proposed and the structure of each of the classified groups of regulatory legal acts is substantiated. The content of the rights to individual liberty, to freedom of movement is analyzed, as well as the prohibition of forced labor in Russian legistlation. The analysis of the limits of the authority of the Russian Federation and its subjects in the issues of ensuring the right to individual liberty is carried out. The problems of the existing mechanisms for the implementation of the provisions of the analyzed legal acts are identified.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has scientific value and practical significance, since it carries out not only an analysis of the enshrining of the right to individual liberty in the country’s legislation, but also substantiates the problems of its implementation.
Keywords: individual freedom, international legal acts, Russian legislation, freedom of movement, forced labor, slavery, implementation mechanism.
References (transliterated)
1.Avdeev V.A., Avdeeva E.V. Sporny`e voprosy` kvalifikacii torgovli lyud`mi i ispol`zovaniya rabskogo truda // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 2013. № 7. S. 20–24.
2.Anishina V.I., Poponov Yu.G. Svoboda truda ili pravo na trud? // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2007. № 4. S. 86–96.
3.Belomestny`x L.L. Ogranichenie prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina: Teoreticheskij aspekt: avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2003.
4.Gerasimov P.Yu. Problemy` realizacii prava kazhdogo na svobodu peredvizheniya, vy`bor mesta preby`-vaniya i zhitel`stva v sovremennoj Rossii // Probely` v rossijskom zakonodatel`stve. 2011. № 6. S. 14–19.
5.Limonova N.A. Problemy` zloupotrebleniya pravami v oblasti svobody` peredvizheniya // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 2014. № 6. S. 56–58.
6.Malyushin A.A. Pravovoe obespechenie realizacii osnovny`x prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina: teoreticheskij aspekt: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2003.
7.Sadovnikova G.D. Kommentarij k Konstitucii Rossijskoj Federacii (postatejny`j). 10-e izd., pererab. i dop. M., 2017.
8.Yakovleva E.V. Osobennosti konstitucionno-pravovogo statusa inostranny`x grazhdan v Rossijskoj Federacii i stranax anglo-saksonskoj sistemy` prava: avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2008.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Krainova N.A.
Correction of the condemned: goal or function of criminal punishment? (To the question of essence and terminology)
Purpose: To study the theoretical and practical aspects of correction as the goal or function of punishment. This paper also aims to establish the correlation between the concepts of correction and re-socialization of convicts.
Methodology: Dialectical, system and logical approaches were used.
Results: The correction of the convict is currently listed in Part 2 of Art. 43 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation as one of the purposes of punishment. The author concludes that the modern practice in the field of combating crime increasingly uses the concept of resocialization of convicts as an alternative to the correction of convicts, and analyzes arguments in favor of such replacement. Resocialization of convicts should be considered the function of punishment, and the «correctional impact» concept should be used in practical circulation.
Novelty/originality/value: The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that the author analyzes the essence of the correction of convicts from the standpoint of goals or functions of punishment. The practical use of the «resocialization of convicts» concept instead of «correction» is argued.
Keywords: correction, resocialization, convicted, punishment goals, punishment functions, crime control.
References (transliterated)
1.Sostoyanie prestupnosti za yanvar`–dekabr` 2018 g. [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://xn—b1aew.xn--p1ai/reports/item/16053092/.
2.Agashkov E.I. Ispravlenie osuzhdennogo kak cel` ugolovnogo nakazaniya v vide prinuditel`ny`x rabot // Bezopasnost` biznesa. 2018. № 2. S. 35–39.
3.Gromov V.V., Kry`lov A.S. Social`ny`e svyazi v processe resocializacii osuzhdenny`x // Primenenie nakazanij, ne svyazanny`x s lisheniem svobody`. M., 1989.
4.Daxxaev M.M. Problemy` resocializacii osuzhdenny`x, otby`vshix nakazanie v vide lisheniya svobody` // Yuridicheskij vestnik DGU. 2014. № 4. S. 108.
5.Ugolovno-ispolnitel`ny`j kodeks RF ot 08.01.1997 № 1-FZ (red. ot 27.12.2018) (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 08.01.2019) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus». URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_12940/ab040135c90e38b7592380d81a076507c473a309/.
6.Seliverstov V.I. Korrekciya celepolaganiya ugolovnogo nakazaniya v vide lisheniya svobody`: mif ili real`nost` // Kriminologiya: vchera, segodnya, zavtra. 2017. № 2(45). S. 30–37.
7.Shestakov D.A. Ot ponyatiya prestupnosti k kriminologii zakona // Obshhestvenny`e nauki i sovremennost`. 2008. № 6.
8.Shestakov D.A. Prestupnost` sredi social`ny`x podsistem // Prestupnost` sredi social`ny`x podsistem. Novaya koncepciya i otrasli kriminologii / pod red. D.A. Shestakova. SPb.: Yuridicheskij centr Press, 2003.
9.Seliverstov V.I. Ispravlenie ili resocializaciya osu-zhdenny`x: spor o terminax ili izmenenie sushhnosti // Shestoj Permskij kongress ucheny`x-yuristov (g. Perm`, 16–17 oktyabrya 2015 g.): izbranny`e materialy` / V.V. Akinfeeva, S.I. Afanas`eva i dr.; otv. red. V.G. Golubczov, O.A. Kuzneczova. M.: Statut, 2016.
10.Luk`yanova E. Principy` spravedlivosti i ravenstva pered zakonom v ugolovno-ispolnitel`nom prave // Prestuplenie i nakazanie. 2004. № 11. S. 30.
11.Teoriya sistem i sistemny`j analiz v upravlenii organizaciyami: Spravochnik: ucheb. posob. / pod red. V.N. Volkovoj, A.A. Emel`yanova. M.: Finansy` i statistika, 2006.
12.Zubkova V.I. Ispolnenie lisheniya svobody` v celyax resocializacii osuzhdenny`x: problemy` i perspektivy` razvitiya // Vestnik instituta: prestuplenie, nakazanie, ispravlenie. 2013. № 22. S. 24–29.
13.Maxmudov Z.Sh. Postpenitenciarnaya adaptaciya: k voprosu o ponyatii // Ugolovno-ispolnitel`noe pravo. 2011. № 1. S. 39–42.
14.Folieva T.A. K voprosu ob utochnenii soderzhaniya nekotory`x kategorij teorii socializacii // Izvestiya vy`sshix uchebny`x zavedenij. Povolzhskij region. 2014. № 2. S. 127–137.
15.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 23.06.2016 № 182-FZ «Ob osnovax sistemy` profilaktiki pravonarushenij v Rossijskoj Federacii». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus». URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_199976.
16.Krajnova N.A. Celi nakazaniya kak instrument ugolovnoj politiki // Kriminologiya: vchera, segodnya, zavtra. 2017. № 2(45). S. 57–60.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Natarov A.A., Dudorov T.D.
Responsibility for Medical Offences: Reasons and Types
Purpose: To study the determinants of legal responsibility of medical worker in the context of civil, administrative and criminal law.
Methodology: Legalistic and system approaches were used by the authors.
Results: In this article the institute of responsibility for medical malpractice, such as iatrogenic crimes and medical malfeasance, is analyzed. The authors attempt to classify offences committed in the field of medical practice and come to the conclusion that it is necessary to legally implement the trend of unification of legislation on citizens’ health by creating a single codified Act.
Novelty/originality/value: This study has a certain degree of novelty and scientific value, as it is a study on actual problems of theory and practice of law enforcement in the field of health care. The provisions and materials contained in this study can be used in further research on the subject.
Keywords: citizens health, medical affairs, medical worker, legal responsibility, guilt, offence.
References (transliterated)
1.Mezhdunarodnaya klassifikaciya boleznej MKB-10 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://mkb-10.com.
2.Proekt federal`nogo zakona «O vnesenii izmenenij v Kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ob administrativny`x pravonarusheniyax v chasti sovershenstvovaniya administrativnoj otvetstvennosti v sfere zdravooxraneniya» ot 06.06.2016 № 3875p–P12 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://static.consultant.ru/obj/file/doc/fz_080616.pdf.
3.Bagmet A.M., Petrova T.N. O neobxodimosti vklyucheniya v Ugolovny`j kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii yatrogenny`x prestuplenij // Rossijskij sledovatel`. 2016. № 7. S. 27–32.
4.Ballo A.M., Ballo A.A. Prava pacientov i otvetstvennost` medicinskix rabotnikov za prichinenny`j vred. SPb.: BIS, 2001.
5.Bogdanova A.A. Problemy` otvetstvennosti medicinskix rabotnikov // Leningradskij yuridicheskij zhurnal. 2017. № 1. S. 51–58.
6.Bozhchenko A.P. Yatrogeniya: soderzhanie ponyatiya v medicine i yurisprudencii // Medicinskoe pravo. 2016. № 5. S. 8–12.
7.Ioffe O.S., Shargorodskij M.D. Voprosy` teorii prava. M.: Gosyurizdat, 1961.
8.Kagalovskaya E`.T., Soloshheva S.A., Ly`senkova M.V., Bendz S.Yu. Straxovanie professional`noj otvetstvennosti medicinskix rabotnikov v Rossii: sushhnost` i problemy` razvitiya // Finansy`. 2003. № 10. S. 42–46.
9.Kovalevskij S.M. Nekotory`e diskussionny`e pravo-vy`e problemy` otvetstvennosti za medicinskij vred i ego vozmeshhenie // Social`noe i pensionnoe pravo. 2014. № 1. S. 18–28.
10.Mil`kov A.V. O nesostoyatel`nosti koncepcii dvuxaspektnoj yuridicheskoj otvetstvennosti // Zakon. 2016. № 6. S. 152–164.
11.Nikitina I.O. Prestupleniya v sfere zdravooxraneniya (zakonodatel`stvo, yuridicheskij analiz, kvalifikaciya, prichiny` i mery` preduprezhdeniya): avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. N. Novgorod, 2007.
12.Ognerubov N.A. Yatrogenii v medicinskoj deyatel`-nosti: ugolovno-pravovoj aspekt. Voronezh: Izd-vo VGU, 2010.
13.Pliev R.S. Administrativnaya otvetstvennost` medicinskix uchrezhdenij i dolzhnostny`x licz za narushenie prava grazhdan na oxranu zdorov`ya // Leningradskij yuridicheskij zhurnal. 2017. № 1. S. 209–216.
14.Sergeev Yu.D., Bisyuk Yu.V. Nenadlezhashhee okazanie e`kstrennoj medicinskoj pomoshhi (e`kspertno-pravovy`e aspekty`): nauch.-praktich. ruk. M.: Avtorskaya akademiya: Tovarishhestvo nauchny`x izdanij KMK, 2011.
15.Sitnikova A.I. Yatrogenny`e prestupleniya: ugolovno-pravovoj i processual`ny`j aspekty` // Medicinskoe pravo. 2018. № 2. S. 41–44.
16.Solov`ev A.P. Preduprezhdenie prestuplenij v sfere zdravooxraneniya: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2007.
17.Stepanyan Sh.U. Medicinskaya usluga – specificheskij ob``ekt pravovogo regulirovaniya v rossijskom zakonodatel`stve // Medicinskoe pravo. 2015. № 6. S. 13–16.
18.Xabrieva T.Ya. Osnovny`e vektory` i problemy` razvitiya social`nogo zakonodatel`stva // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2014. № 8. S. 5–15.
19.Chervonny`x E.V. Prestupleniya, sovershaemy`e v sfere zdravooxraneniya, i ix preduprezhdenie: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Saratov, 2009.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Postanyuk V.D.
On the Problem of Decriminalization of Responsibility for Economic Crimes
Purpose: To study the problem of decriminalization of responsibility for economic crimes and identify the main trends of this process.
Methodology: Legalistic and comparative methods were used by the author.
Results: The paper is devoted to the problem of decriminalization of responsibility for economic crimes and to the main trends and determinants of this process. The author notes that there are redistribution of the repressive potential of criminal law to other branches of law, particularly administrative law; priority of reimbursement and termination of criminal proceedings over criminal law prosecution and subsequent punishment; focus on the investment factor of future changes among such tendencies. Among the determinants of liberalization there can be loss of public danger of a number of crimes and mistakes made in criminalizing these acts in terms of assessing their objective side.
Novelty/originality/value: The study of the problem of decriminalization of crimes of an economic nature is necessary at the moment and because of the confirmed legislative initiative and the actual unfolding of the relevant processes in Russian public life. In anticipation of changes in the criminal law, the author refers to the content, causation and the underlying regularities of these changes.
Keywords: decriminalization of economic crimes, presidential bill, depenalization, criminal law, criminalization, economic crimes, termination of a criminal case.
References (transliterated)
1.Bezverxov A.G. K probleme dekriminalizacii e`konomicheskix prestuplenij // Vestnik Kazanskogo yuridicheskogo instituta MVD Rossii. 2014. № 4 (18).
2.Vitviczkaya S.S., Sokolov V.A. Problemy` dekriminalizacii deyanij v sfere e`konomicheskoj deyatel`nosti // Yurist``-Pravoved. 2015. № 6 (73).
3.Golovko L.V. Al`ternativy` ugolovnomu presledovaniyu v sovremennom prave: monografiya. SPb.: Yurid. centr Press, 2002.
4.Lozinskij I.V. Koncepciya razvitiya glavy` 22 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii: kriminalizaciya ili dekriminalizaciya? // Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2013. № 371.
5.Markelov A.G Ideya processual`nogo kompromissa kak sposoba dokazy`vaniya v sovremennom ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve // Vestnik Rossijskogo universiteta. 2016. № 3 (25).
6.Teslenko A.V. Ugolovny`j kodeks – instrument repressii ili zashhity` dobrosovestny`x predprinimatelej? // Zakon. 2018. № 8.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Gryb D.V.
Social Conditionality of the Criminal Legislation of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus on the Theft Comitted Using Information Tehnologies
Purpose: To study the peculiarities of criminal liability for theft committed using information technologies under the laws of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, and also to identify the factors that led to the criminalization of this form of theft.
Methodology: Formal, comparative and systematic approaches were used by thr authors among different methods of cognition.
Results: In the paper, the factors causing the need for criminal law protection of theft committed using information technologies are considered on the basis of previously conducted theoretical studies on the key factors of criminalization of acts. On the basis of statistical data, indicators characterizing crimes committed using information technologies are presented. Attention is focused on the significance of the social danger factor of the criminal act, as one of the important components in determining the need for its criminalization.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has certain scientific and practical value, since it deals with the actual problems of the science of criminal law, and also indicates the main factors of increased public danger of theft committed using information technologies.
Keywords: social purpose, criminalization, criminal law, public danger, theft committed using information technology.
References (transliterated)
1.Korobeev A.I. Sovetskaya ugolovno-pravovaya politika: problemy` kriminalizacii i penalizacii. Vladivostok: Izd-vo Dal`nevost. un-ta, 1987.
2.Lopashenko N.A. Ugolovnaya politika: monografiya. M.: Volters Kluver, 2009.
3.Lopashenko N.A. Osnovy` ugolovno-pravovogo vozdejstviya: ugolovnoe pravo, ugolovny`j zakon, ugolovno-pravovaya politika. SPb.: Yurid. centr Press, 2004.
4.E`nciklopediya ugolovnogo prava. T. 3: Ponyatie prestupleniya. SPb.: Izdanie professora Malinina, 2005.
5.Polny`j kurs ugolovnogo prava: v 5 t. / pod red. A.I. Korobeeva. T. 1: Prestuplenie i nakazanie. SPb.: Yuridicheskij centr Press, 2008.
6.Kry`lova N.E. Sushhestvuet li ugolovnoe pravo «v shirokom smy`sle slova» // Nauchny`e osnovy` ugolovnogo prava i processy` globalizacii: materialy` V Rossijskogo kongressa ugolovnogo prava, 27–28 maya 2010 g. M.: Prospekt, 2010. S. 721–727.
7.Epifanova E.V. Obshhestvennaya opasnost` kak nauchnaya kategoriya, zakonodatel`naya definiciya: istoriya i sovremennost`: monografiya. M.: Yurlitinform, 2012.
8.Dmitrenko A.P., Russkevich E.A. O netipichny`x aspektax souchastiya v prestupleniyax, sovershaemy`x s ispol`zovaniem informacionno-kommunikacionny`x texnologij // Vestnik Akademii General`noj prokuratury` Rossijskoj Federacii. 2017. № 5 (61). C. 18.
9.Belokopy`tov V.V., Filippenkov V.M. Osobennosti soversheniya i preduprezhdeniya kiberprestuplenij // IB «Kommentarii zakonodatel`stva». Minsk: OOO «YurSpektr», 2019. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus Belarus`».
10.O prestupleniyax, sovershaemy`x s ispol`zovaniem sovremenny`x informacionno-kommunikacionny`x texno-
logij, kommunikacionny`x texnologij [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://genproc.gov.ru/smi/news/genproc/news-1431104.
11.Oficial`ny`j sajt Ministerstva vnutrennix del Respubliki Belarus` [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://mvd.gov.by/main.aspxguid-3311.
12.Limozh N.I., Kosovich M.V. Kriminologicheskie i ugolovno-pravovy`e aspekty` prestuplenij, svyazanny`x s nesovershennoletnimi // IB «Kommentarii zakonodatel`stva». Minsk: OOO «YurSpektr», 2019. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus Belarus`».
13.Xilyuta V.V. Otgranichenie sostava prestupleniya, predusmotrennogo st. 212 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Respubliki Belarus`, ot iny`x sostavov prestuplenij // IB «Kommentarii zakonodatel`stva». Minsk: OOO «YurSpektr», 2019. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus Belarus`».
14.O primenenii sudami ugolovnogo zakonodatel`stva po delam o xishheniyax imushhestva: Postanovlenie Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda Respubliki Belarus` ot 21 dekabrya 2001 g. № 15 // Nacional`ny`j reestr pravovy`x aktov Respubliki Belarus`. 2002. № 8, 6/311.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Gorobtsova J.O.
Criminal Law Characteristic of Negligent Crimes Related to the Violation of Professional Duties
Purpose: To study the criminal law features of Part 2 of Article 109 and Part 2 of Article 118 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation, providing criminal liability for causing serious harm to health or death by negligence and improper performance of professional duties, on the basis of the practical significance of these rules and scientific positions of specialists in the field of criminal law.
Methodology: General, special and private-scientific methods of research (comparative, system, the method of concrete sociological analysis of judicial practice) were used.
Results: The paper discusses the controversial issues related to the criminal law characteristics of the considered crimes and proposals to improve these rules. Features of definition of negligent crimes against life and health and improper performance of professional duties on the basis of the published materials of law enforcement practice are discussed as well.
Novelty/originality/value: The paper has scientific value and carries practical significance. The provisions contained in this paper can be used to improve the current criminal legislation of the Russian Federation, in the development of explanations of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in the process of definition of causing serious harm to health or death by negligence with improper performance of professional duties.
Keywords: negligence, serious harm, professional duties, features of crime definition, guilt, improper performance of professional duties, delimitation.
References (transliterated)
1.Dineka V.I. Vina v ugolovnom prave: soderzhanie i yuridicheskoe znachenie: ucheb. posob. M., 2015.
2.Miroshnichenko N.V., Pudovochkin Yu.E. Prestupleniya, svyazanny`e s narusheniem professional`ny`x funkcij: ponyatie, priznaki, vidy` // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2012. № 4.
3.Mixajlov V.I. Pravovoe regulirovanie prichineniya vreda pri pravomernom vy`polnenii professional`ny`x (dolzhnostny`x) funkcij // Advokat. 2015. № 5.
4.Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 20.04.2006 № 4-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti chasti vtoroj stat`i 10 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii, chasti vtoroj stat`i 3 Federal`nogo zakona «O vvedenii v dejstvie Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii», Federal`nogo zakona «O vnesenii izmenenij i dopolnenij v Ugolovny`j kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii» i ryada polozhenij Ugolovno-processual`nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii, kasayushhixsya poryadka privedeniya sudebny`x reshenij v sootvetstvie s novy`m ugolovny`m zakonom, ustranyayushhim ili smyagchayushhim otvetstvennost` za prestuplenie, v svyazi s zhalobami grazhdan A.K. Ajzhanova, Yu.N. Aleksandrova i drugix» // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2006. № 92.
5.Procenko S.V. Neostorozhny`e prestupleniya v oblasti narusheniya pravil bezopasnosti // Rossijskij sledovatel`. 2016. № 19. S. 44–46.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Sviridov R.V.
On the Issue of Subject of the Crime under Article 245 of the Criminal Code
Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the characteristics of the perpetrators committing crimes under Art. 245 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, on the basis of generalization of materials of judicial practice and scientific positions of specialists in the field of criminal law.
Methodology: General and special (comparative, system-structural, method of sociological analysis of materials of criminal cases) scientific methods were used.
Results: The paper discusses the controversial issues related to the subject of the crime under Art. 245 of the Criminal Code. The age and socio-psychological characteristics of those who commit cruel acts against animals are investigated. The opinions of scientists related to this subject are analyzed as well.
Novelty/originality/value: The paper has a high scientific value and carries great practical significance. The provisions contained in the paper can be used to improve the current criminal legislation of the Russian Federation, to develop new clarifications of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, in the process of defining cruelty towards animals.
Keywords: the subject of a crime, cruel treatment of animals, age of criminal responsibility, responsibility, harm to animals.
References (transliterated)
1.Bajbarin A.A. Ugolovno-pravovaya differenciaciya vozrasta: monografiya. M.: Vy`sshaya shkola, 2009. S. 74–81.
2.Bocharov E.V. Ugolovnaya otvetstvennost` za zhestokoe obrashhenie s zhivotny`mi: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Tambov, 2013. S. 87–95.
3.Vartanyan G.A., Onishhenko O.R. K voprosu o nastuplenii vozrasta ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti // Vestnik Omskogo universiteta. Pravo. 2017. № 1 (50). S. 206–210.
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12.Pavlov V.G. Sub``ekt prestupleniya v ugolovnom prave. SPb., 1999. S. 5.
13.Pavlov V.G. Sub``ekt prestupleniya. SPb.: Yuridi-cheskij centr Press, 2001. S. 71.
14.Tishhenko A.O. Konstitucionny`e osnovaniya usta-novleniya priznakov sub``ekta prestupleniya // Obshhestvo i pravo. 2009. № 4. S. 149.
15.Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii: uchebnik: v 2 t. T. 1: Obshhaya chast` / pod red. d-ra yurid. nauk, prof. N.G. Kadnikova. M.: ID «Yurisprudenciya», 2018. S. 109–120.
16.Xabarovskie zhivoderki: ot chuvstva beznakazannosti do skam`i podsudimy`x [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.dvnovosti.ru/khab/2017/08/25/70930/.
17.Shul`ga V.I., Vasilenko V.S. K voprosu snizheniya vozrasta ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti dlya nesovershennoletnix // Territoriya novy`x vozmozhnostej. Vestnik Vladivostokskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta e`konomiki i servisa. 2016. № 1. S. 63–70.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Trubin E.M.
Concealment of an Object of the Crime under Part 1 of Art. 325 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation
Purpose: To study the Russian criminal law and judicial practice on the issue of liability for concealing the object of a crime under Part 1 of Article 325 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, as well as to identify problems of law enforcement and give recommendations.
Methodology: Metods of diaalectics, abstraction, analysis, synthesis, deduction, legalistic method, analysis of documents were used.
Results: Based on the analysis of the doctrine of criminal law and judicial practice, the author concludes that there is a real public danger of concealment of official documents, seals (stamps), including in relation to electronic documents. The conclusion is made that it is impossible to define the concept of «concealment» using such categories as concealment, transfer, storage, deduction from legal possession, since they (each separately) are too narrow to define the concept of «concealment».
Novelty / originality / value: The significance of the study lies in the determination of the main signs of hiding the objects of the crime provided by Part 1 of Article 325 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, as well as in author’s definition of the concept of «concealment», including in relation to electronic documents.
Keywords: crime, objective side of a crime, concealment, crimes against the order of management.
References (transliterated)
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5.Bukalerova L.A. Informacionny`e prestupleniya v sfere gosudarstvennogo i municipal`nogo upravleniya: zakonotvorcheskie i pravoprimenitel`ny`e problemy`: dis. ... d-ra yurid. nauk. M., 2007.
6.Ivanov N.G. Ugolovnoe pravo. Osobennaya chast`. M.: Yurajt, 2016.
7.Kozachenko I.Ya., Novoselov G.P. Ugolovnoe pravo. Osobennaya chast`: v 2 t. T. 2. M.: Yurajt, 2017.
8.Kommentarij k Ugolovnomu kodeksu Rossijskoj Federacii (postatejny`j): v 2 t. T. 2 / A.V. Brilliantov, G.D. Dolzhenkova, E`.N. Zhevlakov i dr.; pod red. A.V. Brilliantova. 2-e izd. M.: Prospekt, 2016.
9.Kurs sovetskogo ugolovnogo prava: v 6 t. Chast` Osobennaya. T. VI. Prestupleniya protiv gosudarstvennogo apparata i obshhestvennogo poryadka. Voinskie prestupleniya / pod red. A.A. Piontkovskogo, P.S. Romashkina, V.M. Chxikvadze. M.: Nauka, 1971.
10.Logika / pod red. D.P. Gorskogo i P.V. Tavancza. M.: Gospolitizdat, 1956.
11.Morozov V.I., Skutin S.L., Sumachev A.V. Ugolovno-pravovaya xarakteristika prestuplenij protiv poryadka upravleniya. Tyumen`, 1999.
12.Nauchny`j kommentarij k Ugolovnomu kodeksu RSFSR / pod red. M.I. Kovaleva, E.A. Frolova i M.A. Efimova. Sverdlovsk: Sverdl. yurid. in-t, 1964.
13.Ozhegov S.I., Shvedova N.Yu. Tolkovy`j slovar` russkogo yazy`ka: 80 000 slov i frazeologicheskix vy`razhenij. 4-e izd., dop. M.: Azbukovnik, 1997.
14.Polenov G.F. Otvetstvennost` za poxishhenie, poddelku dokumentov i ix ispol`zovanie. M.: Yurid. lit., 1980.
15.Polny`j kurs ugolovnogo prava: v 5 t. / pod red. A.I. Korobeeva. T. 5: Prestupleniya protiv gosudarstvennoj vlasti. Prestupleniya protiv voennoj sluzhby`. Prestupleniya protiv mira i bezopasnosti chelovechestva. Mezhdunarodnoe ugolovnoe pravo. SPb.: Yuridicheskij centr Press, 2008.
16.Ponyatovskaya T.G., Chuchaev A.I. Prestupleniya pro-tiv poryadka upravleniya. Izhevsk: Detektivinform, 2007.
17.Postanovlenie ot 31.03.2011 № 10-5/2011 Novoos-kol`skogo rajonnogo suda (Belgorodskaya oblast`) // Su-debny`e i normativny`e akty` RF (SudAkt) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/Ld7ASGmpwymJ.
18.Postanovlenie Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 28.12.2006 № 64 «O praktike primeneniya sudami ugolov-nogo zakonodatel`stva ob otvetstvennosti za nalogovy`e prestupleniya» (p. 20) // Byulleten` Verxovnogo Suda RF. 2007. № 3.
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20.Prigovor ot 11.08.2011 № 1-128\2011G Gul`ke-vichskogo rajonnogo suda (Krasnodarskij kraj) // Sudebny`e i normativny`e akty` RF (SudAkt) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/D6y8pZSZQ05R.
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24.Trubin E.M. E`lektronny`j dokument kak predmet prestupleniya // Problemy` primeneniya ugolovnogo i ugolovno-processual`nogo zakonodatel`stva: sbornik materialov mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii / pod red. V.M. Zimina i dr. Simferopol`, 2018. S. 140–143.
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28.Ugolovnoe pravo. Osobennaya chast`: uchebnik dlya vuzov / otv. red. I.Ya. Kozachenko, Z.A. Neznamova, G.P. Novoselov. M.: NORMA, 2000.
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ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Chashin A.N.
Legal Doctrine: Hypostases and Rhizomeness
Purpose: In the paper, the author attempted to understand the options for the manifestation of legal doctrine in the legal life of society.
Methodology: The theoretical position of the researcher is based on the method of materialistic dialectics.
Results: The legal doctrine manifests itself in outside forms, but is perceived by the subject not only in one of its forms or in some of the species. In order to replenish the identified lacunae, the author attempts to substantiate the introduction into scientific use of the term «hypostasis of legal doctrine». The correlation between these hypostases is analyzed by the author in connection with the doctrine of superposition. Further, the author argues that it is necessary to move from the root understanding of the legal system to the network one.
Novelty/originality/value: The doctrine of the hypostases of legal doctrine as a law source is introduced by the author for the first time.
Keywords: legal doctrine, rhizome, source of law, form of law.
References (transliterated)
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3.Abdraxmanov V.G. Soderzhatel`naya integraciya kak superpoziciya funkcional`ny`x sistem // Sibirskij pedagogicheskij zhurnal. 2008. № 6. S. 52–61.
4.Bojko M.E. Obobshhenie teorii fabuly`: temporal`-nost`, prichinnost`, superpoziciya // Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy` teorii i praktiki. 2013. № 11-1. S. 31–34.
5.Peshheviczkij B.I. Korpuskulyarno-volnovoj dualizm i klassicheskaya mexanika // Filosofiya nauki. 2003. № 2. S. 60–73.
6.Kuchmenko M.A. Princip rizomy` kak strukturoobrazuyushhij faktor postmodernistskogo teksta // Vestnik Ady`gejskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 2: Filologiya i iskusstvovedenie. 2014. № 4. S. 119–122.
7.Sinel`nikova L.N. Rizoma i diskurs intermedial`-nosti // Vestnik RUDN. Lingvistika. 2017. T. 21. № 4. S. 805–821.
8.Garcia J.I.M. Del sistema a la red: la perspectiva del juez // Anuario de filosofia del derecho. 2016. XXXII. P. 431–450.
9.De Sanctis F.M. La voce antica del diritto oltre-moderno // Rivista di filosofia del dritto. 2015. № 1. P. 75–88.
10.Greco T. Paolo Grossi, teorico del diritto orizzontale // Rivista di filosofia del dritto. 2016. № 1. P. 47–88.
11.Marty`shin O.V. Politicheskaya obyazannost` // Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2000. № 4. S. 5–14.
12.Hirschl R. Towards Juristocracy – The Origins and Consequences of the New Constitutionalism. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press, 2007.
13.Itzcovich G. Nobili sogni e incubi. Teorie dell’inter-pretazione costituzionale e contesto istituzionale // Rivista di filosofia del diritto. 2017. № 1. P. 97–118.
14.La democrazia giudiziaria / Carlo Guarnieri; Patrizia Pederzoli. Bologna: Il mulino, 1997.
15.Pizzorno A. Il potere dei giudici: stato democratico e controllo della virtù. Roma: Bari: Laterza, 1998.
16.Lazarev V.V. Tolkovanie prava: klassika, modern i postmodern // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2016. № 8. S. 15–28.
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18.Zaccaria G. Comprensione del diritto, non sul diritto // Rivista di filosofia del diritto. 2015. № 1. P. 119–126.
19.Zav`yalov Yu.S. Razmy`shleniya po povodu teoreticheskix suzhdenij o totalitarizme // Lex Russica. 2011. № 4. S. 620–627.
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21.Marty`shin O.V. Konstituciya i ideologiya // Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2013. № 12. S. 34–44.
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ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Moskalenko A.I.
Notary Activities in the Context of the Implementation of the Protection of Rights: A General Theoretical Approach
Purpose: To determine the nature of notarial activity through the prism of analysis and interaction of private law and public law components of the protection of rights.
Methodology: Dialectical, logical and dogmatic methods were used.
Results: The paper considers notarial activity in the context of the implementation of the protection of the right at a general theoretical level. It is established that the distribution of volumes of private and public components in notarial activities is uneven. The private law component is made up of the subjective interests of the participants in the notarial relationship – citizens and legal entities who apply for the protection of their rights and legitimate interests; and the «freedom of profession» of a notary, which is a characteristic of a private notary, due to restrictions on his responsibility. The public component is realized by virtue of the powers of notaries, delegated by the state to them, by the ability of notaries to give rise to legal facts and thereby have an impact on the relevant material and procedural legal relations. The paper also addresses the issue of the relationship between notarial activities and the function to protect the right. It is concluded that notarial activities should be considered as a method and foundation of human rights protection, in connection with which two of its levels are distinguished - general and specific. At the general level, human rights protection is implemented from the state’s name under Art. 2 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation; at a particular level - by notaries in order to exercise the subjective rights and legitimate interests of citizens and organizations. Notarial activity, combining the beginnings of public legal guarantees from the state and guarantees of the exercise of subjective rights, is an independent and specific remedy, and therefore acts not only as the basis of legal relations, but also as a method of exercising a human rights function.
Novelty/Originality/Value: The paper has scientific novelty, as the author has conducted one of the first attempts to explain the nature of the notary through the prism of the combination of private law and public law in the activities of the notary, distributing them at the levels of human rights activities.
Keywords: notary, public law relations, private law relations, notary responsibility, notarial relations, objective law, subjective right, basis of legal relationship, legal fact.
References (transliterated)
1.Begichev A.V. Human rights activities of the notary in the field of compliance with the rights and legitimate interests of participants in civil turnover while providing evidence: dis. ... d-ra legal sciences. M., 2015.
2.Kutyukhin I.V. On the relationship of legal fact and legal relations // Leningrad legal journal. 2006. № 2 (6). S. 38–41.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Kanatov T.K.
Features of Legal Status of Subjects of Copyright and Related Rights in the Eurasian Economic Union Countries
Purpose: To analyze the current issues of the legal status of subjects of copyright and related rights in the EAEU countries.
Methodology: System, legalistic, historical, comparative and statistical methods were used.
Results: The proposals and conclusions are based on the analysis of international law, as well as the regulatory legal acts of the Eurasian Economic Union countries in force at the moment. The relevance and practical significance of this article is high due to analyzing the legal status of subjects of copyright and related rights in the EEU countries.
The special significance of this study lies in the fact that the developed theoretical principles of this work can be used in the future for the purpose of further studying and considering issues and problems of the legal status of copyright and related rights in the EEU countries. Therefore, by the research the author contributes significantly to the theoretical part of civil law.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a high scientific value, since it is one of the first attempts to consider topical problematic issues of the legal status of subjects of copyright and related rights in the EEU countries.
Keywords: copyright, related rights, exclusive right, Eurasian, economic.
References (transliterated)
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2.Bliznecz I., Leont`ev K. Intellektual`naya sobstvennost` i isklyuchitel`ny`e prava // Intellektual`naya sobstvennost`. Avtorskoe pravo i smezhny`e prava. 2002. № 6. S. 2–18.
3.Gambarov Yu.S. Grazhdanskoe pravo. Obshhaya chast` / pod red. V.A. Tomsinova. M.: Zerczalo, 2003. S. 380.
4.Gavrilov E`.P. Kommentarij Zakona «Ob avtorskom prave i smezhny`x pravax». M.: Pravovaya kul`tura, 1996. S. 59.
5.Gadzhiev G. Neposredstvennoe primenenie sudami konstitucionny`x norm // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 1995. № 12. S. 24.
6.Grishaev S.P. Intellektual`naya sobstvennost`: ucheb. posob. M.: Yurist, 2004. S. 57.
7.Dozorcev V.A. Intellektual`ny`e prava. Ponyatie. Sistema. Zadachi kodifikacii: sbornik statej. M.: Statut, 2003. S. 144–179.
8.Dozorcev V.A. Pravo na fil`m kak slozhnoe mnogoslojnoe proizvedenie // Intellektual`ny`e prava. Ponyatie. Sistema. Zadachi kodifikacii: sbornik statej. M., 2003. S. 159.
9.Ioffe O.S. Izbranny`e trudy`: Pravootnoshenie po sovetskomu grazhdanskomu pravu: v 4 t. T. 1. SPb.: Yurid. centr Press, 2003. S. 216.
10.Kanatov T.K. Ponyatie avtorskix prav v stranax Evrazijskogo e`konomicheskogo soyuza // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2016. № 1 (20).
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15.Morgunova E. Priroda i pravovoj rezhim sluzheb-ny`x proizvedenij // Intellektual`naya sobstvennost`. 1998. № 1. S. 50–59.
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17.O primenenii sudami zakonodatel`stva pri rassmotrenii sporov, voznikayushhix iz avtorskix pravootnoshenij: Postanovlenie Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda SSSR ot 18 apr. 1986 g. № 8.
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ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Mochalova V.A.
Responsibility of the Heirs to the Testator’s Debts:Problems and Prospects for the Development of the Concept
Purpose: To identify the current problems of the concept of responsibility of heirs for the debts of the testator and to offer prospects for its development, taking into account the experience of the German legislator.
Methodology: Legalistic, comparative, historical and dialectical methods are used.
Results: Analysis of the civil law regulation and practice of applying the rules on the responsibility of heirs for the debts of the testator indicates that the limitation of the liability of heirs established to the limits of the property transferred to them, as established in Russian law, can hardly be called undoubtedly correct, since such a restriction deprives the lender of guarantees of satisfaction in case of the debtor’s death, leads to a rise in the cost of the loan and in the end – to instability of civil life. In this regard, possible ways of reforming the institution of responsibility of heirs for the debts of the testator: a) may be associated with the rejection of the principle of limiting the liability of heirs to the size of the hereditary mass and the introduction of special causae and conditions limiting such liability; b) or, to preserve the imperative limitation of liability of heirs, it is necessary to recognize expedient further reforming of the institution of responsibility in inheritance law and introduce constructions allowing to ensure a balance of interests of the inheritor’s creditors and heirs, in particular, institutions of the moratorium on satisfying the requirements of the deceased’s creditors and inherited property assets, long used in German law, and to introduce the limited liability of heirs.
Novelty/originality/value: The scientific value of the research is due to the fact that the emerging practice requires the improvement of the institution of responsibility of heirs for the debts of the testator. The proposals formulated in the work, in the opinion of the author can contribute to increasing the effectiveness of legal regulation in this area.
Keywords: testator, heir, inheritance, inheritance, responsibility of heirs, succession.
References (transliterated)
1.Ostanina E.A. Bankrotstvo nasledstvennoj massy`: analiz izmenenij zakonodatel`stva // Nasledstvennoe pravo. 2015. № 4. S. 33–38.
2.Petrov E.Yu. Otvetstvennost` naslednikov po dolgam nasledstva [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://zakon.ru/blog/2015/12/1/otvetstvennost_naslednikov_po_dolgam_nasledstva.
3.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo suda Ural`skogo okruga ot 08.08.2017 № F09-4002/17 po delu № A60-25086/2016. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
4.Postanovlenie Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 29.05.2012 № 9 «O sudebnoj praktike po delam o nasledovanii». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
5.Postanovlenie Prezidiuma VAS RF ot 04.06.2013 № 17530/12 po delu № A60-14066/2009. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
6.Serebrovskij V.I. Izbranny`e trudy` po nasledstvennomu i straxovomu pravu. 2-e izd., ispr. M.: Statut, 2003.
7.Cherepaxin B.B. Pravopreemstvo po sovetskomu grazhdanskomu pravu. M.: Gosyurizdat, 1962.
 
POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
Khodusov A. A.
On the Constitutional Model of Welfare State in a Market Economy
Purpose: This paper presents the concepts of welfare state, sociality of market economy, and social justice.
Methodology: Legalistic, comparative, historical and dialectical methods are used.
Results: The conditions of economic regulation in the interests of certain social groups are established. It is proven by the author that it is impossible to build such a state and a society in which absolutely everyone will live the same way.The role of the state in the formation of social justice is established. Different constitutional models that govern social order in general are analyzed as well.
Novelty / originality / value: The paper has a certain scientific value and practical significance.
Keywords: constitutional model, sociality, market economy, social justice, social equilibrium, social responsibility, social norms.
References (transliterated)
1.Baglaj M.V. Konstitucionnoe pravo Rossijskoj Federacii. M.: Norma, 2007.
2.Vas`kina O.E`. Social`naya spravedlivost` v massovom soznanii sovetskogo obshhestva // Izvestiya Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta. 2009. № 8. S. 22–26.
3.Gabrelyan E`.V. O pravovom social`nom gosudar-stve // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 2011. № 5. S. 32–34.
4.Kruchinin V.N. Social`noe gosudarstvo i ego funkcii v usloviyax sovremennoj Rossii // Nauchno-issledo-vatel`skie publikacii. 2013. № 1. S. 15–30.
5.Pashencev D.A. Konstitucionnaya model` social`noj ry`nochnoj e`konomiki Rossii // Pravo i zhizn`. 2012. № 167. S. 214–225.
 
POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
Volkova T.B.
Migration Policy and Trends of Its Development
Purpose: To analyze topical issues of migration policy of Russia and trends of its development.
Methodology: Legalistic and system approaches were used.
Results: The author’s concept of «migration policy», its social conditionality, the purposes and tasks are presented in the paper.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a certain scientific and practical value as it attempts to analyze the problems of legal regulation of migration policy, as well as ts contents and features.
Keywords: analysis, safety, nationality, legislation, migration, violation, crime, responsibility.
References (transliterated)
1.Aleshkovskij I.A., Ioncev V.A. Upravlenie mezhdunarodnoj migraciej v usloviyax globalizacii // Vek globalizacii. 2015. № 1. S. 75–87.
2.Koncepciya gosudarstvennoj migracionnoj politiki Rossijskoj Federacii na 2019–2025 gody` (utverzhdena Ukazom Prezidenta RF ot 31.10.2018 № 622) // Oficial`ny`j internet-portal pravovoj informacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.pravo.gov.ru.
3.Kostyuk M.F. Ugolovnaya politika po pravovomu regulirovaniyu i protivodejstviyu organizacii nezakonnoj migracii // Problemy` v rossijskom zakonodatel`stve. 2013. № 2. S. 131–135.
4.Marks K. K kritike politicheskoj e`konomii. Predislovie // Marks K., E`ngel`s F. Soch. 2-e izd. S. 6–7.
5.Prudnikova T.A. Teoretiko-metodologicheskie i pra-vovy`e osnovy` regulirovaniya migracionny`x processov (Na primere Rossii i gosudarstv – chlenov Evropejskogo Soyuza): monografiya. M.: YuNITI-DANA: Zakon i pravo, 2016.
6.Universal`ny`j e`nciklopedicheskij slovar`. M.: Bol`-shaya Rossijskaya e`nciklopediya, 1999.

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