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International scientific and practical law journal Eurasian Journal of International Law
PROBLEMS OF OR GANIZATION AND Advocacy PRO FESSION FUNCTIONING
Yunusov A.S., Kaznaev A.O.
Advocacy in Turkey
Purpose: The study of the history and characteristics of the legal profession in the Republic of Turkey in order to highlight the stages, their characteristics and major trends of their development.
Methodology: Historical-legal, comparative-legal and formally-legal method was used.
Results: This paper addresses birth and development of Institute of advocacy of Turkey. Institute of advocacy had been established to help foreigners by the 13 of January 1876. Turkish legal system will have been more democrated if he has accepted common law. Turkish reception of civil law have influenced to Arab states. The Turkish court system does not recognize the concept of a jury. The candidates for posts of judges of the constitutional Court of Turkey is being nominated by the Association of lawyers of Turkey. Foreigners are not allowed in the representation in courts. The right to be represented is owning by only professional representatives of the Association of lawyers of Turkey.
Novelty/originality/value: The article possesses high scientific value as is one of the first attempts to consider the history of the development of the Turkish legal profession in contemporary Russian literature.
Keywords: advocacy law, Turkey, reception Roman-Germanic law, Qiyas, civil service, admission of foreign bars, concept of a jury, Constitutional Court.
References (transliterated)
1. Annual Report 2013. ESPCh, 2014 (angl.). S. 200–201.
2. Aydın M. Securitization of History and Geography: Understanding of Security in Turkey // Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. 2003. Vol. 3. № 2. P. 163.
3. Highest to Lowest – Prison Population Rate (angl.) [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison_population_rate?field_region_taxonomy_tid=All.
4. Moja professija – advokat [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.vestiturkey.com/mo-professi-advokat-2315h.htm.
5. Sazak Derya. ‘Özel Harp’, TSK’nın otoritesini de sarstı (Turkish), Milliyet (9 janvarja 2006 goda).
6. Walmsley Roy. World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition) (PDF) (October, 2006) [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/law/research/icps/downloads/world-prison-pop-seventh.pdf.
7. Ylmaz I. Secular law and the emergence of unofficial turkish islamic law // Middle east J. Wash., 2002. Vol. 56. № 1. P. 113–131.
8. Bar-Zohar M., Ben-Gurion I. / per. s ivrita Sima Veksler; pod obshh. red. Jakova Cura. Tel’-Aviv: Jakov Press, 1985.
9. Vas’kovskij E.V. Organizacija advokatury. Ch. 1. Ocherk vseobshhej istorii advokatury. SPb., 1893. S. 65.
10. Vlasov I.S., Pul’janov V.Z. Organizacija advokatury v zarubezhnyh stranah. M.: VNIISZ Minjusta SSSR, 1972.
11. Voloshin V. Vizit v Tureckuju respubliku. Dialog sudebnyh sistem // Sudebnyj vestnik Moskovskoj oblasti. 2009. № 4 (Oktjabr’–dekabr’). S. 5.
12. Kantjukova I.T. Pravovoj status pomoshhnika i stazhera advokata po zakonodatel’stvu Ukrainy // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2015. № 2 (15). S. 25–31.
13. Kantjukova I.T. Pravovoe polozhenie pomoshhnika i stazhera advokata po zakonodatel’stvu Respubliki Kazahstan // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2015. № 1 (14). S. 22–25.
14. Kongin A.I. Advokatura kak pravovoj institut grazhdanskogo obshhestva // Obrazovanie i pravo. 2015. № 7 (71). S. 19–24.
15. Maguta P. Advokatura chetyreh morej // Novaja advokatskaja gazeta. 2007. 13 dek.
16. Makarov S.Ju. Advokatura Vizantii v V–XI vekah: jevoljucija statusa advokata, organizacija advokatury, uchastie advokatov v kodifikacii zakonodatel’stva // Advokatskaja praktika. 2015. № 3. S. 44-53.
17. Makarov S.Ju. Sozdanie prisjazhnoj advokatury v Rossii v rezul’tate sudebnoj reformy 60-h godov XIX veka: liberal’noe otnoshenie konservativnogo gosudarstva // VII Mezhdunarodnaja nauchno-prakticheskaja konferencija «Sudebnaja reforma v Rossii: proshloe, nastojashhee, budushhee (Kutafinskie chtenija)»: sbornik dokladov. M., 2015. S. 20–23.
18. Mezhdunarodnaja komissija juristov vzgljanula so storony na rossijskuju advokaturu [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://pravo.ru/review/view/124293/.
19. Pospelov O.V. Formy advokatskih obrazovanij: dis. ... kand. jurid. nauk. M., 2008.
20. Ratifikacija «Evropejskoj Konvencii po pravam cheloveka i osnovnyh svobod» stranami-uchastnicami [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.evrosud.ru/ratifikaciya.htm.
21. Reshetnikov F.M. Pravovye sistemy stran mira: Jenciklopedicheskij spravochnik. 3-e izd. M.: Norma, 2001. S. 780–790.
22. Smolenskij M.B. Advokatskaja dejatel’nost’ i advokatura Rossijskoj Federacii. Rostov n/D: Feniks, 2004. S. 144.
23. Sud i advokatura v Turcii / D-r Wladimir Pappafava; per. O.B. Fuksa. Har’kov: Rus. tipo-lit., 1909. S. 48.
 
PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND Advocacy PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Ragulina I.T.
Order of registration and cancellation of the employment contract with the assistant of advocate by the legislation of the Russian Federation
Purpose: The comparative analysis of the legislation of some Chambers of Advocates relatively about registration and cancellation of the employment contract with the assistant of advocate by the legislation of the Russian Federation.
Methodology: The formal legal method, a method of studying of documents were used.
Results: The author formulated a conclusion that the bases for the termination of the employment contract with the assistant of advocate are established as in the Approximate Provision on the assistant of advocate developed by FPA Russian Federation and in acts of Chambers of Advocates of subjects of the Russian Federation. It is also noted that some additional bases used by Chambers of Advocates of a number of subjects of the Russian Federation, such as disclosure by the assistant to the data which became to it known in connection with implementation of labor duties (violation of lawyer secret), commission by the assistant to the offense belittling authority of legal profession, non-execution of decisions of the bodies of Chamber of Advocates and advocate education accepted within their competence are reasonable.
Novelty/originality/value: Article have a high scientific and practical value as is one of the first attempts to offer creation of the separate act regulating an order of registration and cancellation of the employment contract with the assistant of advocate by the legislation of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: assistant of advocate, advocate, employment contract, uniform bases.
References (transliterated)
1. Obzor nekotoryh raz#jasnenij Federal’noj palaty advokatov v svjazi s obrashhenijami advokatskih palat, advokatskih obrazovanij i advokatov v 2005–2006 godah // Vestnik Federal’noj palaty advokatov RF. 2006. № 4 (14). S. 90.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Poezzalov V.B., Linkevich A.E.
A critical analysis of the Resolution of Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation from 4 December 2014 № 16 «On judicial practice in cases of crimes against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of the person»
Purpose: The study disputes Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court on December 4, 2014 № 16 «On judicial practice in cases of crimes against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of the person».
Methodology: We used a dialectical, historical, legal, logical, systematic, dogmatic and comparative legal methods.
Results: The views expressed in this article are the value judgments and recommendations aimed at overcoming the existing difficulties and gaps in law enforcement in relation to crimes against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of the person.
Novelty/originality/value: The scientific value of the article is that it made recommendations for correct qualification of a number of issues which are not regulated in the explanations of the Plenum of the Supreme Court. The originality of the work is determined by a systematic approach to address and solve the problems that have arisen in connection with the adoption of the Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court on December 4, 2014 № 16 «On judicial practice in cases of crimes against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of the person».
Keywords: crimes against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of the person, rape, forced sexual assault, other sexual acts, qualification.
References (transliterated)
1. Aguzarov T.K. Prestupnye posjagatel’stva na nezavisimost’ i neprikosnovennost’ sudej. M., 2004.
2. Galiakbarov R.R. Bor’ba s gruppovymi prestuplenijami. Voprosy kvalifikacii. Krasnodar, 2000.
3. Kantemirova K.H. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy kvalifikacii polovyh prestuplenij // Rossijskij sledovatel’. 2007. № 13.
4. Kahnij M.V. Sootnoshenie iznasilovanija i polovogo snoshenija i inyh dejstvij seksual’nogo haraktera s licom, ne dostigshim shestnadcatiletnego vozrasta // Voprosy juvenal’noj justicii. 2007. № 5.
5. Kostyrev V.I. Ugolovnoe pravo. Obshhaja i Osobennaja chasti: kurs lekcij. Ufa, 2000.
6. Kurs ugolovnogo prava. Osobennaja chast’ : uchebnik dlja vuzov / pod red. G.N. Borzenkova, V.S. Komissarova. M., 2002.
7. Nastol’naja kniga sud’i po ugolovnym delam / otv. red. A.I. Rarog. M., 2007.
8. Nurkaeva T.N. O sudebnoj praktike po delam o prestuplenijah protiv polovoj svobody i polovoj neprikosnovennosti lichnosti // Ugolovnoe pravo. 2014. № 5.
9. Poezzhalov V.B., Divaeva I.R. Problemy zakonoda-tel’noj reglamentacii i kvalifikacii prestuplenij protiv polovoj neprikosnovennosti i polovoj svobody lichnosti // Evrazijskij juridicheskij zhurnal. 2012. № 6.
10. Trajnin A.N. Sostav prestuplenija po sovetskomu ugolovnomu pravu. M., 1957.
11. Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii. Osobennaja chast’: uchebnik / otv. red. R.A. Sabitov. Tjumen’, 2013.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Amasyants A.E., Shtoyan G.V.
The question on election of a measure of restraint in form of detention and extension of the expiration date in the light of the legal positions of the European Court on human rights
Purpose: The Analysis of case-law European Court of human rights, infringement of the right to freedom and personal inviolability when selecting a measure of restraint in form of detention and extension of the expiration date in order to attempt the harmonization of General principles and approaches of the European Court to the described problem.
Methodology: The author applied formal-legal method, comparative legal method, method of document analysis.
Results: In article on the basis of the analysis of the case-law of the European Court related to the violation of the right to freedom and personal inviolability when selecting a measure of restraint in form of detention and extension of the expiration date, deals with the General elements of the claim of lawfulness guaranteed by article 5 of the Convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as some additional safeguards to protect against arbitrary and unjustified deprivation of liberty.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a practical value since, based on the analysis of numerous European Court practice, the authors identified some problematic aspects in the application by national courts of the legislation on preventive measures in the form of detention.
Keywords: right to liberty and personal integrity, restraint, detention, the measure of restraint in form of detention, renewal of detention, the European court on human rights, legal positions of the European Court.
References (transliterated)
1. Gashina N.N. Nekotorye problemy realizacii reshenij Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka v Rossijskoj Federacii // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2015. № 5 (18). S. 67–69.
2. Delo «Aleksandr Makarov (Aleksandr Makarov) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 15217/07).
3. Delo «Aleksanjan (Aleksanyan) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 46468/06).
4. Delo «Bykov (Bykov) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 4378/02).
5. Delo «Vladimir Solov’ev (Vladimir Solovyev) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 2708/02).
6. Delo «Idalov (Idalov) protiv Rossii» (zhaloba № 5826/03).
7. Delo «Kislica (Kislitsa) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 29985/05).
8. Delo «Krikunov (Krikunov) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 13991/05).
9. Delo «Mamedova (Mamedova) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 7064/05).
10. Delo «Nahmanovich (Nakhmanovich) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 55669/00).
11. Delo «Panchenko (Panchenko) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 45100/98).
12. Delo «Pichugin (Pichugin) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 38623/03).
13. Delo «Pshevecherskij (Pshevecherskiy) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 28957/02).
14. Delo «Smirnova (Smirnova) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloby № 46133/99 i 48183/99).
15. Delo «Sulaojja (Sulaoja) protiv Jestonii» (zhaloba № 55939/00).
16. Delo «Shaposhnikov (Shaposhnikov) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 8998/05).
17. Delo «Jurij Jakovlev (Yuriy Yakovlev) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 5453/08).
18. Delo «Vladimir Solov’ev (Vladimir Solovyev) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 2708/02).
19. Delo «Gusinskij (Gusinskiy) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 70276/01).
20. Delo «Nasrulloev (Nasrulloyev) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 656/06).
21. Delo «Romanova (Romanova) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 23215/02).
22. Delo «Smirnovy (Smirnova) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloby № 46133/99 i 48183/99).
23. Delo «Hudoerov (Khudoyorov) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 6847/02).
24. Petuhova N.Ju. Posledstvija vozmozhnogo vyhoda Rossii iz-pod jurisdikcii Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2015. № 5 (18). S. 61–65.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Otchertsova O.V.
Adversarial preliminary investigation as a way towards objective truth
Purpose: Investigation of possibility of mutual existence of adversarial principle and its very special realization on the stage of preliminary investigation with an objective truth in case of its implementation into the criminal procedure.
Methodology: Formally-legal, comparative-legal and legal-modeling methods were used.
Results: In the article the main thesis of above mentioned Draft Law concerning implementation of objective truth institution into the criminal procedure are highlighted: 1) the court is active in setting real facts of the case, and that follows from enlargements of court’s procedure rights (replenishment of incomplete evidence base under its own initiative, enlargement of causes of return of the case back to the prosecutor, abolition of a sentence due to incompleteness and unilateralism of court investigation); 2) prosecution gets away from accusatory bias and investigate the case commits thoroughly, complete and objectively; 3) adversarial and equality principles, as well discretion of estimation of evidences, are determined by objective truth principle; the definition of «objective truth» is formulated on the basis of above mentioned Draft Law.
Novelty/originality/value: Article possesses the high scientific value as is one of the first attempts to consider the ability of synthesis of two traditionally contradictory ideas – adversarial and objective truth.
Keywords: criminal procedure reform, objective truth, adversarial principle, preliminary investigation.
References (transliterated)
1. Baev O.Ja. Prokuror kak sub#ekt ugolovnogo presledovanija: nauch.-praktich. posob. M., 2006.
2. Bozh’ev V.P. Sostjazatel’nost’ na predvaritel’nom sledstvii // Zakonnost’. 2004. № 1. S. 3–6.
3. Kokorev L.D., Kuznecov N.P. Ugolovnyj process: dokazatel’stva i dokazyvanie. Vo-ronezh, 1995.
4. Lazareva V.A. Sudebnaja vlast’ i ejo realizacija v ugolovnom processe. Samara: SaGU, 1999.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Makarov R.V.
Qualifying errors: concept, nature, mechanism of occurrence
Purpose: Research Revealing the concept, nature and mechanism of occurrence of errors in qualification of crimes.
Methodology:  Used dialectical-materialist, comparative, theoretical, applied and formal legal methods.
Results:  The article subjected to the rethinking of the concept of qualification errors under which we understood wrong, permissible subjects of law enforcement intentionally or unintentionally, damaging a law enforcement authority. The types of qualification errors, a common feature of which is the implementation of irregularities in enforcement. It is concluded that the nature of the qualification error is not reduced only to the idea of it as a result of unintentional actions or inactivity of subjects of law enforcement, as qualification of the error can be viewed as a natural result of the imperfections of the criminal law. Qualifying the nature of the error can be characterized and how a certain regularity, due to objective reasons (the imperfection of legislation, lack of professionalism, improper use of subject of legal norms, etc.). Therefore, the nature of the qualification of the error can be interpreted as a natural result of the irregularity of the actions of law enforcement units.
Novelty/originality/value:  The article possesses high scientific value, represents an attempt to rethink the concepts of qualification of the error, its nature and mechanism of occurrence. Reconsidered the criteria for the assignment qualification of the error to a particular type.
Keywords: criminal law, qualification of the error, the nature, the mechanism of occurrence.
References (transliterated)
1. Bazarov P.R. Aktual’nye voprosy teorii i praktiki otgranichenija prestuplenija, predusmotrennogo st. 258.1 UK RF, ot administrativnogo pravonarushenija, predusmotrennogo st. 8.35 KoAP RF // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2015. № 6 (19).
2. General’nyj prokuror Ju. Chajka vystupil s zajavleniem, v kotorom ukazal na to, chto sledovatelej za dopushhennye imi oshibki, v tom chisle i kvalifikacionnye, neobhodimo nakazyvat’ // Sledovateli oplatjat svoi oshibki [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.gazeta.ru/social/2008/05/27/2736870.shtml.
3. Zajcev I.M. Ustranenie sudebnyh oshibok v grazhdanskom processe. Saratov: Izdatel’stvo Saratovskogo universiteta, 1985.
4. Ivin A. A. Slovar’ po logike. M.: VLADOS, 1997.
5. Kartashov V.N. Professional’naja juridicheskaja dejatel’nost’ (voprosy teorii i praktiki): ucheb. posob. Jaroslavl’, 1992.
6. Kolosovskij V.V. Teoreticheskie problemy kvalifikacii ugolovno-pravovyh dejanij: monografija. M.: Statut, 2011.
7. Mirzoev G.B. Ustranenie sudebnoj oshibki: kompleksnyj harakter problemy // Uchenye trudy Rossijskoj Akademii advokatury i notariata. 2012. № 1.
8. Mursalimov K.R. Pravoprimenitel’nye oshibki. Problemy teorii. N. Novgorod: Nizhegorodskij juridicheskij institut, 2000.
9. Ozhegov S.I. Slovar’ russkogo jazyka / pod red. N.Ju. Shvedovoj. M.: Russkij jazyk, 1990.
10. Ragulin A.V. Prigovor po ugolovnomu delu otmenen v svjazi s narushenijami professional’nyh prav advokata-zashhitnika // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2012. № 1.
11. Rep’ev G.A. Grazhdansko-pravovoe regulirovanie otvetstvennosti za vred, prichinennyj sudebnymi organami (sud’jami) v sfere ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva // Rossijskij sud’ja. 2007. № 3.
12. Shejfer S.A. Ponjatie, struktura i prichiny sledstvennyh oshibok // Voprosy juridicheskoj tehniki v ugolovnom i ugolovno-processual’nom zakonodatel’stve. Jaroslavl’, 1997.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Voronin S.A.
Procedural rights and duties of expert in civil legal proceedings
Purpose: Research of procedural rights and duties of the expert.
Methodology: The author used formal legal method, and also the comparative analysis of the legislation regarding procedural laws and the expert’s duties.
Results: In article the conclusion is drawn on need of improvement of the Russian legislation concerning legal status of the expert regarding specification of the concept «need», reduction in compliance of sequence of categories of «right» and «duty». The conclusion is drawn on expediency of distribution of the right of expression of a dissenting opinion of the expert provided (item 2 of Art. 83 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation) and on the conclusion of complex examination (Art. 82 of GPK Russian Federation).
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a certain scientific and practical value as in it the analysis of actual legislative and law-enforcement problems is made.
Keywords: expert, examination, judicial examination, civil process, procedural laws, judicial and expert activity.
References (transliterated)
1. Davtjan A.G. Jekspertiza v grazhdanskom processe. M., 1995.
2. Zorin L.V. Processual’nye prava i objazannosti jeksperta pri naznachenii jekspertizy v sudebnom razbiratel’-stve // Vestnik JuUrGU. Pravo. 2009. № 19 (152). S. 21–25.
3. Liluashvili T.A. Jekspertiza v sovetskom grazhdanskom processe. Tbilisi, 1967.
4. Sahnova T.V. Jekspertiza v grazhdanskom processe (Teoreticheskoe issledovanie): dis. ... d-ra jurid. nauk. Krasnojarsk, 1998.

PROTECTION OF THE PROFESSIONAL RIGHTS OF ADVOCATe
Gusyatnikov P.P., Gusyatnikova P.P.
Information security of advocate’s activity and advocate’s secret
Purpose: Research of the connection between the author’s concept «information security of advocate’s activity» and the concept of «advocate’s secret».
Methodology: The authors applied formal legal method, comparative legal method and philosophical legal method.
Results: The paper describes the connection between the author’s concept «information security of advocate’s activity» and the concept of «advocate’s secret» and concludes that an advocate during his activity must not only keep advocate’s secret but also provide information security.
Novelty/originality/value: Article possesses high scientific value and has practical importance since it is one the first articles, dedicated to the detailed theoretical and practical research of such phenomenon as information security of advocate’s activity and its connection with the advocate’s secret.
Keywords: advocate, advocate’s activity, advocate’s secret, information, information security, information security of advocate’s activity, information component of advocate’s activity, advocate’s information security policy.
References (transliterated)
1. Galushkin A.A.K voprosu ob informacionnoj bezopasnosti i predostavlenii gosudarstvennyh i municipal’nyh uslug posredstvom seti Internet // Pravozashhitnik. 2015. № 3. S. 9.
2. Gusjatnikov P.P., Gusjatnikova P.P. Informacionnaja bezopasnost’ advokata: osnovnye ponjatija // Probely v rossijskom zakonodatel’stve. 2016. № 1.
3. Pilipenko Ju.S. Advokatskaja tajna: Teorija i praktika realizacii: avtoref. dis. … d-ra jurid. nauk. M., 2009.
4. Vestnik Federal’noj palaty advokatov RF. 2007. № 1 (15). S. 77–83.
5. Kodeks professional’noj jetiki advokata (prinjat Pervym Vserossijskim s#ezdom advokatov 31.01.2003) (red. ot 22.04.2015).
6. Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii ot 17 dekabrja 2015 g. № 33-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti punkta 7 chasti vtoroj stat’i 29, chasti chetvertoj stat’i 165 i chasti pervoj stat’i 182 Ugolovno-processual’nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii v svjazi s zhaloboj grazhdan A.V. Baljana, M.S. Dzjuby i drugih».
7. Rekomendacii po obespecheniju advokatskoj tajny i garantij nezavisimosti advokata pri osushhestvlenii advokatami professional’noj dejatel’nosti // FPA RF. 2009. 30 nojabrja. Protokol № 3.
8. Sangadzhiev B.V. Advokatskaja tajna i ispol’zovanie konfidencial’noj informacii v ugolovnom i grazhdanskom processe // Obrazovanie i pravo. 2015. № 1 (65). S. 145–158.

HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Bulychev E.N.
The principle of equality and the problem of its consolidation in the Russian Federation Constitution
Objective: Identification of problems securing the principle of equality in Article 19 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the formulation of proposals to address them taking into account regional and international experience.
Methodology: We used the dialectical, logical, systematic, dogmatic and comparative legal methods.
Results: The views expressed in this article are opinions and recommendations aimed at removing imperfections in the structure of the constitutional provisions enshrining the principle of equality.
Novelty/originality/value: The scientific novelty of the article is that the author has made a critical first comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the provisions of Art. 19 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the author formulated proposals to improve the design of the constitutional principle of equality.
Keywords: constitution, rights, freedom, equality, the principle of the state, a man, a citizen, discrimination.
References (transliterated)
1. Avtorskie proekty konstitucii. Konstitucija Rossii (vnesena Liberal’no-demokraticheskoj partiej Rossii) // Obozrevatel’ – Observer: nauchno-analiticheskij zhurnal. 1993. № 17 (21) [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.observer.materik.ru/observer/N17_93/index.htm.
2. Bulychev E.N. Princip nedopustimosti diskriminacii lic s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostjami v Konstitucii Respubliki Bashkortostan (logicheskij i lingvisticheskij analiz) // Aktual’nye problemy sovershenstvovanija zakonodatel’stva i pravoprimenenija: materialy V mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii (g. Ufa, 8 fevralja 2015 g.) / pod obshh. red. A.V. Ragulina, I.T. Kantjukovoj; Evrazijskij nauchno-issledovatel’skij institut problem prava. Ufa, 2015.
3. Informacionnoe agentstvo «RosBiznesKonsalting»: oficial’nyj sajt [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://top.rbc.ru/politics/06/11/2014/545abb73cbb20f390bffc4e0.
4. Kozlova E.I., Kutafin O.E. Konstitucionnoe pravo Rossii: uchebnik. 4-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Velbi: Prospekt, 2007.
5. Nikovskaja L. Zhenshhiny v politike: «za» i «pro-
tiv» // Informacionnyj portal politicheskoj partii «Spra-vedlivaja Rossija» [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.spravedlivie.ru/i_ghenthiny_v_politike_za_i_protiv.htm.
6. Semejnoe pravo Rossii: uchebnik dlja vuzov. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Norma, 2004. S. 263–264.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Minyazeva T.F., Dobryakov D.A.
Reforming a convicted person (criminal) as the purpose of punishment
Purpose: The analysis of the purpose of reforming a convicted person in the criminal and criminal executive law.
Methodology: Method of analysis, comparative, historical-legal and formal-legal methods were used in the article.
Results: This article suggests the desirability of excluding from the text of part 2 of article 43 of the Criminal code of the Russian Federation and part 1 of article 1 of the Criminal executive code of the Russian Federation such purpose of punishment as the reforming (correction) of offenders (criminals) as unattainable under the existing penal system and inherently redundant.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a certain scientific value, as it is argued position of the authors about the purposes of punishment, which is different from the current legislation, and includes suggestions for its (legislation) improvement.
Keywords: purpose of punishment, reforming a convicted person (criminal), criminal punishment, criminal (penal) statute.
References (transliterated)
1. Ugolovnoe pravo na sovremennom jetape. Problema prestuplenija i nakazanija / pod red. N.A. Beljaeva, V.K. Glistina i V.V. Orehova. SPb., 1992.
2. Adel’hanjan R.A. Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii. Prakticheskij kurs: uchebnik / pod obshh. i nauch. red. A.V. Naumova. 4-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Volters Kluver, 2010.
3. Kommentarij k Ugolovno-ispolnitel’nomu kodeksu Rossijskoj Federacii (postatejnyj) / A.V. Brilliantov, S.I. Kurganov; pod red. A.V. Brilliantova. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Prospekt, 2015.
4. Sundurov F.R., Talan M.V. Nakazanie v ugolovnom prave: ucheb. posob. M.: Statut, 2015.
5. Ugolovnyj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii: nauchn.-praktich. komm. / pod red. L.L. Kruglikova i Je.S. Tenchova. Jaroslavl’: Vlad, 1994.
6. Rossijskoe ugolovnoe pravo: v 2 t. T. 1. Obshhaja chast’: uchebnik / pod red. L.V. Inogamovoj-Hegaj, V.S. Komissarova, A.I. Raroga. 4-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Prospekt, 2015.
7. Bjordzhess, Jentoni. Zavodnoj apel’sin; Semja zhelanija / per. s angl. V.B. Boshnjaka, A.A. Komarinec. M.: AST, 2015.
8. Sudebnyj departament pri Verhovnom Sude Rossijskoj Federacii. Dannye sudebnoj statistiki [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: www.cdep.ru/userimages/sudebnaya_statistika/Sbornik_2008-2014.xls.
9. Federal’naja sluzhba gosudarstvennoj statistiki. Chislo lic, soderzhashhihsja v mestah lishenija svobody [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/population/pravo/10-11.doc.
10. Karpec I.I. Nakazanie. Social’nye, pravovye i kriminologicheskie problemy. M., 1973.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Martyshkin V.N.
Anti-corruption standards of behavior of officials
Purpose: Research of questions of emergence and improvement of anti-corruption standards of behavior of officials.
Methodology: Historical and legal and formally legal methods were used.
Results: In article components of the anti-corruption standard of behavior of officials are considered, situations at which discussion of the defined subjects, statements of employees, offers and commission of specific actions can be perceived surrounding as the promise, consent or as a request for bribery are given.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a certain scientific value and the practical importance.
Keywords: corruption, anti-corruption ban, public service, standards of behavior, donation, remuneration, bribe subject.
References (transliterated)
1. Volgin I.L. Materialy sovmestnogo zasedanija Soveta po mezhnacional’nym otno-shenijam i Soveta po russkomu jazyku pri Prezidente Rossijskoj Federacii (Moskva, 19.05.2015) // Pravo i bezopasnost’. 2015 № 2. S. 9.
2. Volzhenkin B.V. «Obychnyj podarok» ili vzjatka? // Zakonnost’. 1997. № 4. S. 25.
3. Grebennikov V.V., Sangadzhiev B.V. Konceptual’nye aspekty sovershenstvovanija su-debnoj sistemy Rossii // Obrazovanie i pravo. 2015. № 11 (75). S. 169–179.
4. Grebnev R.D. Nekotorye voprosy stanovlenija normativnoj pravovoj reglamentacii sovremennogo sudoustrojstva i organizacii dejatel’nosti sudov // Obrazovanie i pravo. 2015. № 11 (75). S. 246–255.
5. Zolotuhina N.M. Pravovaja nauka i juridicheskaja ideologija Rossii: Jenciklopediche-skij slovar’ biografij /pod red. A.M. Syryh. M., 2009. S. 319.
6. Izot’ev S.A. O nekotoryh problemah protivodejstvija korrupcionnomu vzjatochniche-stvu // Sbornik. nauch. trudov / pod red N.A. Lopashenko. Saratov, 2003. S. 321.
7. Kirpichnikov A.I. Rossijskaja korrupcija. SPb., 2004. S. 254.
8. Martyshkin V.N., Gavin A.S. Kompetentnost’ sud’i – garantija jeffektivnoj zashhity lichnosti ot neobosnovannogo zakljuchenija pod strazhu // Rossijskoe pravosudie. 2010. № 9. S. 73–80.
9. Obzor rekomendacij po osushhestvleniju kompleksa organizacionnyh, raz#jasnitel’-nyh i inyh mer po nedopushheniju dolzhnostnymi licami povedenija, kotoroe mozhet vos-prinimat’sja okruzhajushhimi kak obeshhanie dachi vzjatki ili predlozhenie dachi vzjatki libo kak soglasie prinjat’ vzjatku ili kak pros’ba o dache vzjatki // Pis’mo Ministerstva truda i social’noj zashhity RF ot 10.07.2013 № 18-2/10/2-3836.
10. Rezoljucija jekonomicheskogo i social’nogo Soveta OON ot 22.07.2006 № 2006/23 «Ukreplenie osnovy principov povedenija sudej».
11. Slovo o polku Igoreve. M., 1970.
12. Social’no-jekonomicheskoe razvitie Rossijskoj Federacii predusmatrivaet dal’-nejshee razvitie i sovershenstvovanie sudebnoj sistemy // Sud’ja. 2015. № 3. S. 56.
13. Speranskij M.M. O korennyh zakonah gosudarstva. M., 2015. S. 23.
14. Hlonova N.V. Sovershenstvovanie antikorrupcionnogo zapreta na darenie s uchetom opyta FRG // Aktual’nye problemy jekonomiki i prava. Kazan’. 2011. № 4. S. 82–83.
15. Jani P.S. Ugroza ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti kak naibolee jeffektivnoe sredstvo bor’by s korrupciej // Prestupnost’ i korrupcija: sovremennye rossijskie realii: Sbornik nauch. trudov /pod red. N.A. Lopashenko. Saratov, 2003. S. 259.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Yamaletdinova N.V.
Internal social audit as an element of institutional control over the activities of Internal affairs agencies
Purpose: Determine the characteristics of the internal social audit law enforcement.
Methodology: Private-scientific methods of learning: formal, legal, comparative legal, system analysis and other.
Results: Identified by distinctive features of the institution of internal social audit Internal affairs agencies and defined its place in the system of institutional control over law enforcement.
Novelty/originality/value: Provides a brief analysis of the phenomenon social audit of law enforcement, defined goals, objectives, forms and methods of internal departmental social control activities of Internal affairs agencies.
Keywords: audit, social audit, law enforcement, police, departmental control.
References (transliterated)
1. Egoryshev S.V., Egorysheva N.V. Social’nyj audit organov vnutrennih del: ponjatie i vozmozhnosti // Evrazijskij juridicheskij zhurnal. 2010. № 7 (26). S. 17–27.
2. Nacional’nyj standart «Metodologija funkcional’-nogo modelirovanija» [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://vernikov.ru/biznes-modelirovanie/tehnologii-i-standarty/item.html.
3. Smirnov Je.A. Standartizacija i audit sistemy upravlenija organizacii // Menedzhment v Rossii i za rubezhom. 1998. № 5. S. 12–19.
4. Fefelov V.V., Jamaletdinova N.V. Vnutrennij social’nyj audit pravoohranitel’noj dejatel’nosti: sushhnost’, celi, zadachi // Vestnik VJuI FSIN Rossii. 2012. № 3. S. 140–146.
5. Jekonomika truda: ucheb. / pod red. prof. P.Je. Shlendera i prof. Ju.P. Kokina. M.: Jurist#, 2003.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Chernaya O.O.
Ratio of human rights and law-enforcement activity (on the example of protection of subjects of aviameteorological support)
Purpose: To consider a ratio of categories «protection of human rights» and «law-enforcement activity» on the example of legal protection of subjects of meteorological providing civil aviation.
Methodology: Methodological bases dialectic, sociological and system methodologies are used. They are applied in total with methods of the analysis and synthesis, abstraction, deduction and induction, interpretation, legal, statistical, juridical-linguistical, quantitative and qualitative methods of scientific knowledge.
Results: The article analyzes the public relations in the field of meteorological providing civil aviation. Definition of human rights activity in the sphere of the protection of subjects of aviameteorological support including, law-enforcement activity, and representing process of formation and fixing of the norms providing the rights and interests of subjects of the corresponding relations in regulations, and also creations of the organizational and legal structures adequate to them possessing necessary competence and allocated property (including financial) and a manpower is formulated. Definition of legal protection of subjects of aviameteorological support as to the legal activities for the prevention and suppression of infringement of their rights and legitimate interests or restoration of the violated rights and legitimate interests which is carried out for creation of such operating conditions of appropriate subjects under which maximum efficiency of their work on safety of flights of aircrafts in the meteorological relation is guaranteed is given.
Novelty/originality/value: Article possesses the high scientific value, so as scientific attention to problems of protection of subjects of meteorological providing aircraft it wasn’t shown.
Keywords: human rights activity, law-enforcement activity, aviameteorological support.
References (transliterated)
1. Anners Je. Istorija evropejskogo prava: per. so shved. / Institut Evropy. M.: Nauka, 1996. S. 75.
2. Aristotel’. Soch.: v 4 t. T. 2. M.: Nauka, 1984. S. 536.
3. Bol’shoj tolkovyj slovar’ russkogo jazyka / Institut lingvisticheskih issledovanij RAN; gl. red. d-r. filol. nauk S.A. Kuznecov. SPb.: Norint, 2006. S. 359, 770.
4. Velichko V.N. Ot Lubjanki do Kremlja. Neturisticheskie poezdki po miru. M.: Akva-Term, 2013. S. 251–254.
5. Volodina N.V. «Islamskoe gosudarstvo Iraka i Levanta» («IGIL») kak ugroza mirovomu soobshhestvu // Pravovaja iniciativa. 2015. № 1. S. 8.
6. Gegel’ G.V.F. Filosofija prava // Filosofskoe nasledie. T. 113. M.: Institut filosofii AN SSSR: Mysl’, 1990. S. 63, 253–254.
7. Gerasimov V.T. Tajny aviakatastrof. Kniga tret’ja. M.: Vozdushnyj transport, 2011. S. 96–140.
8. Dal’ V.I. Tolkovyj slovar’ zhivogo velikorusskogo jazyka: v 4 t. M.: OLMA-PRESS, 2004. T. 1. S. 595; T. 2. S. 640.
9. Digesty Justiniana / otv. red. L.L. Kofanov. M.: Statut, 2006. T. VIII. S. 611, 637.
10. Matuzov N. I. Pravovaja sistema i lichnost’. Saratov, 1987. S. 131.
11. Ozhegov S.I. Slovar’ russkogo jazyka. 6-e izd., stereotip. M.: Sovetskaja jenciklopedija, 1964. S. 222, 476.
12. Okonchatel’nyj otchet Mezhgosudarstvennogo aviacionnogo komiteta ot 12 janvarja 2011 g. po rezul’tatam rassledovanija aviaproisshestvija 10.04.2010 s samoletom Tu-154M № 101 Respubliki Pol’sha [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.mak.ru.
13. Osobennosti raboty organov voennyh soobshhenij i transporta v uslovijah chrezvychajnyh situacij i vooruzhennyh konfliktov. M.: Central’noe upravlenie voennyh soobshhenij Minoborony Rossii, 2005. S. 77–78.
14. Ohranitel’nyj mehanizm v pravovoj sisteme socializma: Mezhvuz. sbornik nauchnyh statej / pod red. N.V. Vitruka. Krasnojarsk, 1989.
15. Paduanskij M. Zashhitnik mira. Defensor pacis / per. s franc. B.U. Esenova; nauch. red., vstup. st., primech. G.P. Lupareva. M.: Dashkov i K, 2014. S. 200.
16. Sabikenov S. Nekotorye voprosy ohrany sub#ektiv-nyh prav i zakonnyh interesov grazhdan // Problemy gosudarstva i prava na sovremennom jetape: Trudy nauch. sotrudnikov i aspirantov. Vyp. 6. M., 1973. S. 53.
17. Savickij V.M. Jazyk processual’nogo zakona (voprosy terminologii) / pod red. Ministra justicii RSFSR A.Ja. Suhareva. M.: Nauka, 1987.
18. Sajt FGBU «Aviamettelekom Rosgidrometa» [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http//www.aviamettelekom.ru.
19. Tarhov V.A. Grazhdanskoe pravo: Kurs lekcij. Cheboksary, 1997. S. 259–260.
20. Tolkachev K. B., Habibulin A. G. Organy vnutrennih del v mehanizme obespechenija lichnyh konstitucionnyh prav i svobod grazhdan. Ufa, 1991.
21. Travnikov A.I. Porjadok organizacii vozdushnogo prostranstva: mezhdunarodno-pravovye aspekty // Justicija. 2015. № 1. S. 1.
22. Ciceron. Dialogi. O gosudarstve. O zakonah. M.: Ladomir: Nauka, 1994. S. 20.
23. Shagiev B.V. Notariat i advokatura kak pravozashhitnye organy Rossii // Uchenye trudy Rossijskoj akademii advokatury i notariata. 2012. № 3 (26). S. 34–38.
24. Jur’ev S.S. Pravovoj status nacional’nyh men’shinstv (teoretiko-pravovoj analiz). 2-e izd. M.: Jeditorial URSS, 2000. S. 10–11.
25. Jachmennikova N. Polet po-chernomu. Interv’ju prezidenta konsul’tativno-analiticheskogo agentstva «Bez-
opasnost’ poletov» V.G. Shelkovnikova // Rossijskaja gazeta. 2011. 8 ijulja. № 5523.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Rogov N.S.
To a question of introduction of criminal responsibility of legal entities in the Russian Federation
Purpose: Research institute of the criminal liability of legal entities for the purpose of addressing the necessity for the introduction of this institute in Russia.
Methodology: Scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, and also comparative legal and formally legal methods were used.
Results: The issue of introduction the institute of criminal liability of legal entities is a topical, controversial and unresolved issue of modern criminal procedure. The author analyzed the legislation of the foreign countries, and comes to the conclusion that in the Russian Federation, the administrative liability of legal entities, in fact, equivalent to the criminal liability of legal entities of foreign countries. However, in the process of attracting people to administrative responsibility range of rights and guarantees provided to such persons, much lower in comparison with the process of bringing the person to justice. Thus, the author raises the question of the feasibility of the introduction of criminal liability for legal entities, for the purpose of protecting the rights and legal interests of these persons is in the framework of criminal proceedings.
Novelty/originality/value: The author of this article is a first who proves the need for the introduction of this institution of criminal liability of legal entities in Russia in order to protect the rights and legitimate interests of legal entities.
Keywords: criminal liability, legal entity, subject of crime, administrative liability, legal safety.
References (transliterated)
1. Bardeev K.A. K probleme ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti juridicheskih lic v kontekste mezhdunarodnogo i zarubezhnogo prava // Zakonnost’ i pravoporjadok v sovremennom obshhestve. 2015. № 25. S. 67.
2. Gadzhiev G.A. Konstitucionnye osnovy juridicheskoj otvetstvennosti i konstitucionno-pravovaja otvetstvennost’ // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2014. № 1. S. 12.
3. Dodonov V. Otvetstvennost’ juridicheskih lic v sovremennom ugolovnom prave Jelektronnyj resurs. URL: http://www.zazakon.ru.
4. Zakonoproekt № 750443-6 «O vnesenii izmenenij v nekotorye zakonodatel’nye akty Rossijskoj Federacii v svjazi s vvedeniem instituta ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti juridicheskih lic» Jelektronnyj resurs. URL: http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=750443-6.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Arutyunyan M.S.
Some aspects of state regulation of bureaucratic phenomena
Purpose: Based on the analysis of theoretical concepts to determine the occurrence of factors, the existence and development of power and bureaucracy, to identify the role of the bureaucracy in the power structure and the governance process, to determine the methods and ways to improve the functioning of bureaucratic institutions, lobby groups and elite.
Methodology: Used comparative law, legal method of ascending to the abstractions of system-structural method.
Results: In the present study analyzes the impact of factors on the subjects of interest imperious activity, the existence of which is objectively inherent in public administration. The necessity of securing the state formalized the principle of openness and transparency in public administration from the point of the rule of law.
Novelty/originality/value: Generalizations developed greatly enrich the lighting of the relevant provisions of the state theory of law, philosophy of law in respect of the consideration of the government, the mechanism (apparatus) of the state, the state’s functions. Theoretical study of interdependence and interdependence of phenomena in power, the need for political forms of regulation and governance methods can be used in the educational process in legal sciences and in the implementation of legislative activity.
Keywords: power, political system, the political elite, lobbying, interest groups.
References (transliterated)
1. Avdeeva Ju.N. Fenomen bjurokratii v sovremennoj social’noj sisteme: dis. … kand. filos. nauk. M., 1999. S. 48–50.
2. Anarhija i vlast’: sbornik / Ros. akad. nauk, in-t vseobshh. istorii; otv. red. K.M. Anderson. M.: Nauka, 1992. S. 86–87.
3. Bruler V. Bjurokratija // Polis. 1991. № 5. S. 144.
4. Golosov G.V. Sravnitel’naja politologija. Novosibirsk, 1995. S. 183.
5. Danilov A.N. Sociologija vlasti. Teorija i praktika globalizma. Mn., 2001. S. 34.
6. Zotov S.V. Lobbizm kak institut politicheskogo predstavitel’stva interesov v sovremennoj Rossii: dis. … kand. politol. nauk. M., 1997. S. 97–99.
7. Radugin A.A. Politologija. M., 1996. S. 48.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Hismatullin O.Y.
Separate aspects of progress of legal regulation of remote commerce in Russia
Purpose: To lead complex studying process of evolution of legal regulation of process of the conclusion and features of execution of contracts in the remote ways.
Methodology: The method of an ascention to legal abstraction, a system-structural method was used rather-legal.
Results: The author studies the basic concepts of the conclusion of contracts as a whole, the conclusions of contracts between «absent» in particular, the instant of a recognition of contracts is certain by prisoners. The author states generalizations and the conclusions assisting progress of theoretical concepts in the field of the conventional law.
Novelty/originality/value: Article possesses a sufficient degree of originality as in work attempt of research of history of evolution of legal regulation of remote commerce is undertaken.
Keywords: remote way of sale, recognition of the contract, moment of recognition of the contract.
References (transliterated)
1. Koerren Albert. Der obligatorische Vertrag unter Abwesendem: Eine zivilistische Abhandlung Jena. Mauke, 1871.
2. Grazhdanskoe ulozhenie Germanii. Deutsches Biugerhches Gesetzbuch mit Einfuhrungsgesetz. Vvod. zakon k Grazhd. Ulozheniju: per s nem. / nauch. red.: A.L. Makovskij i dr. 2-e izd., dop. M.: Volters Kluver, 2006. S. 25.
3. Eveckij A.A. O dogovore mezhdu otsutstvujushhimi // Zhurnal grazhdanskogo i ugolovnogo prava. 1880. Kn. 4. S. 328–329.
4. Igbaeva G.R. Perspektivy razvitija strahovanija pro-fessional’noj otvetstvennosti vrachej i drugih medicinskih rabotnikov // Social’noe i pensionnoe pravo. 2007. № 2. S. 37–39.
5. Katkov V. Zakljuchenie dogovorov pri posredstve jelektrichestva // Zhurnal S-Peterb. jurid. ob-va. 1896. Kn. 7. S. 231–233.
6. Pobedonoscev K.G. Kurs grazhdanskogo prava. T. III. SPb.: Sinodal’naja tipografija, 1896 // Sistema Garant. Informacionnyj blok «Klassika rossijskogo pravovogo nasledija». M., 2009.
7. Pokrovskij I.A. Juridicheskie sdelki v proekte grazhdanskogo ulozhenija // Vestnik prava. № XXXIV. 1904. Kn. 1. S. 87.
8. Problemy zashhity prav uchastnikov potrebitel’skih dogovorov: ucheb. posob. / G.R. Igbaeva i dr. Ufa: Ufimskij JuI MVD Rossii, 2015.
9. Citovich P.P. Uchebnik torgovogo prava. Kiev: M., 2009. S. 164–165.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Velibekov M.S.
Legal and organizational forms of realization of democracy by referendum in federative countries of Western Europe
Purpose: To research the peculiarities of constitutional norms, regulating the right of citizens to a referendum in the Federative countries of Western Europe.
Methodology: Historical-legal and formally-legal method was used.
Results: The obtained peculiarities of constitutional norms and legal practice of holding referendums in the Federative countries of Western Europe and revealed the conditions that shaped the various national constitutional law concept of direct expression.
Novelty/originality/value: A comparative study of constitutional norms and legal practice of holding referendums in Federative countries Western Europe: Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Belgium. For the first time in the Russian science of constitutional law is an attempt to bind the features of constitutional and legal model of the referendum with the national specifics of Federative relations in the countries under consideration.
Keywords: the Constitution, the referendum, direct expression, democracy, Federation of Western Europe.
References (transliterated)
1. Braun N. Direct democracy in Switzerland // International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2008. (International idea Supporting democracy worldwide) [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.idea.int/publications/direct_democracy/upload/direct_democracy_handbook_chapter1.pdf.
2. Instruments of Direct Democracy in Austria // Federal Ministry of the Interior. <Bundesministerium für Inneres> [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.bmi.gv.at/cms/BMI_wahlen/english_version/Instruments_Democrac.aspx.
3. Heindl P. E-Voting in Austria Legal Requirements and First Steps // Lecture Notes in Informatics (The Electronic Library of Mathematics) [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://subs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings47/Proceeding.GI.47-17.pdf/.
4. More democracy for Austria – the nonpartisan initiative for strengthening of direct democracy (Mehr demokratie! Die parteiunabhängige Initiative für eine Stärkung direkter Demokratie) [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://www.mehr-demokratie.at/austria-direct-democratising-direct-democracy-austria.
5. Pelinka A., Greiderer S. Austria: the referendum as an instrument of internationalization // The referendum experience in Europe. Macmillian Press Ltd., 1996. (Trinity College Dublin) [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.tcd.ie/Political_Science/staff/michael_gallagher/ReferendumExperience96.pdf.
6. Switzerland’s Referendums (Switzerland’s political system of direct democracy) [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://direct-democracy.geschichte-schweiz.ch/switzerlands-system-referendums.html.
7. Referendums in Europe – an analysis of the legal rules in European states // Report adopted by the Council for Democratic Elections, 2005. (Council of Europe) [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/default.aspx?pdffile=CDL-AD(2005)034-e.
 
POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
Kanatov T.K.
Powers of the Eurasian economic commission in the field of unification and harmonization of the legislation on protection and protection of copyright and related rights
Purpose: Research of powers of the Eurasian economic commission in the field of unification and harmonization of the legislation on protection and protection of copyright and related rights.
Methodology: The formal-legal method was used.
Results: In article the powers of the Eurasian economic commission regulating various aspects connected with unification and harmonization of the legislation in the field of protection and protection of copyright and related rights are considered.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a certain scientific and practical value as is one of the first attempts to consider some questions of unification and harmonization of the legislation on protection and protection of copyright and related rights in the EEU countries.
Keywords: author’s, right, legislation; protection, protection, Euroasian, economic, unification, harmonization.
References (transliterated)
1. Dogovor o Evrazijskom jekonomicheskom sojuze, g. Astana, 29 maja 2014 goda [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL: Eurasiancommission.org.
2. Aliev S., Izmajlova E. Ohrana, zashhita i ispol’zovanie intellektual’noj sobstvennosti v ramkah evrazijskoj integracii: sistemnyj podhod // Partnerstvo civilizacij. 2014. № 1–2. S. 132–152.
 
JURISPRUDENCE AND EDUCATION
Voronov A.A.
Formation of control systems in legal profession from positions of cybernetics and the system analysis
Purpose: The analysis of formation and realization of control systems in legal profession from positions of the system analysis and cybernetics.
Methodology: The author applied a formal-legal method and a cybernetic method and a method of the system and structural analysis.
Results: In article from positions of lawyer cybernetics and the theory of systems the analysis of formation and realization of control systems in lawyer systems is carried out to the modern period of time. During the analysis the structural problem which is in inconsistency of activity of separate elements of lawyer system is revealed that, can lead to violations in the market of rendering the qualified legal aid, and also a problem which is a consequence of the «vertical» organization of bodies of lawyer self-government, leading in some cases to a certain fight in the system. The conclusion is drawn that the special role when forming control systems in lawyer system in general is played by coherence of actions of all elements of the legal profession. Management process needs to be built taking into account opinion of the lawyer majority, and also taking into account the developed organizational structure, traditions, culture, the principles of historical features and expediency.
Novelty/originality/value: In article for the first time in the scientific press from positions of lawyer cybernetics and the theory of systems, bases of formation and realization of control systems in lawyer systems during the modern period of time are analyzed.
Keywords: legal profession, lawyer system, control system, system analysis, lawyer cybernetics, legal aid.
References (transliterated)
1. Vorob’ev A.V., Poljakov A.V., Tihonravov Ju.V. Teorija advokatury. M.: Grant#, 2002. S. 176.
2. Voronov A.A. Advokatskaja kibernetika: podhody i analiz // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2013. № 5 (6). S. 101–107.
3. Kerimov D.A. Pravo i kibernetika // Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1964. № 9. S. 86–94.
4. Teoreticheskie osnovy sistemnogo analiza / pod red. V.I. Novosel’ceva. M.: Major, 2006. S. 20.
 
JURISPRUDENCE AND EDUCATION
Yakubenko K.Yu.
Factors of formation of the national legal doctrine: some aspects
Purpose: On the basis of theoretical and philosophical understanding of reality, objective factors to justify the need for the formation of a national legal doctrine.
Methodology: We used the philosophical, formal-legal, system and activity methods.
Results: In contrast to the existing law in view of the lack of a national legal doctrine as the most important source of the right ideas, the author of the publication identifies a number of key factors directly influence and determine the need for such a building. Current legislation does not mention precisely of the existence of legal doctrine as a source of law and of law in the domestic legal tradition, but without it is difficult to imagine the independence of the legal system and its culture. Accordingly, the article substantiates the position that an important factor in the formation of a national legal doctrine is the account of features of national mentality, spirituality and worldview. Here are a variety of important factors affecting the process of historical formation of the national legal doctrine, with a number of specific features. It is factors such as ideological, spiritual and moral, organizational, psychological, civilization-activity, geo-political, informational, demographic.
Novelty/originality/value:  This article has sufficient scientific value because it is one of the few attempts to examine the national legal doctrine in the light of multifactor cultural-historical approach.
Keywords: legal system, legal tradition, legal culture, legal sources, legal doctrine, law, legislation, state.
References (transliterated)
1. Avdeev V.B., Savel’ev A.N. Rasovyj smysl Russkoj idei. Vyp. 1 i 2. 2-e izd., isprav. M., 2000. (Biblioteka rasovoj mysli).
2. Berman G. Dzh. Vera i zakon: primirenie prava i religii. M., 1999.
3. Erofeeva D.V., Shagieva R.V. Rimskoe pravo: ucheb. M.: Izd-vo RAAN, 2015.
4. Il’in I.A. O sushhnosti pravosoznanija. M., 1993.
5. Kovler A.I. Antropologija prava: uchebnik dlja vuzov. M., 2002 i dr.
6. Marchenko M.N. Istochniki prava. M.: Norma, 2005.
7. Nersesjanc V.S. Obshhaja teorija prava i gosudarstva: ucheb. dlja jurid. vuzov i fakul’tetov. M., 2001. S. 382–387.
8. Rulan N. Juridicheskaja antropologija: ucheb. dlja vuzov / otv. red. akad. RAN, d-r jurid. nauk, prof. V.S. Nersesjanc. M., 2000.
9. Sinjukov V.N. Rossijskaja pravovaja sistema: Vvedenie v obshhuju teoriju. Saratov, 1994.
10. Sinjukov V.N., Sinjukova T.V. K voprosu o rossijskoj pravovoj doktrine v XXI veke // Voprosy teorii gosudarstva i prava: Novye idei i podhody: mezhvuz. sb. nauch. trudov / pod red. M.I. Bajtina. Vyp. 2 (11). Saratov, 2000. S. 51–59.
11. Syryh V.M. Materialisticheskaja filosofija publichnogo prava: monografija. M.: Jurlitinform, 2016.
12. Fedorchenko A.A. Normy Razumnogo Bytija i pravo: grjadet revoljucija? // 35 let Rossijskoj pravovoj akademii Ministerstva justicii Rossijskoj Federacii i ejo rol’ v razvitii juridicheskogo obrazovanija: materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii: v 2 t. (Moskva, 13 oktjabrja 2005 goda) / otv. red. I.Je. Zvecharovskij. T. 1. M.: RPA MJu RF, 2005. S. 105.
13. Fedorchenko A.A. O novyh metodologicheskih podhodah k rossijskoj pravovoj sisteme: kratkij ocherk // Vestnik rossijskoj pravovoj akademii. 2004. № 2.
14. Shagieva R.V. Koncepcija pravovoj dejatel’nosti v sovremennom obshhestve. Kazan’, 2006.
15. Shagieva R.V., Kazakov V.N. Chelovek v pravovoj sfere: lichnostno-dejatel’nostnyj podhod: monografija. M.: Norma: INFRA-M, 2015.
16. Shagieva R.V., Fedorchenko A.A. O rossijskoj pravovoj sisteme: sovremennye metodologicheskie podhody. M., 2004.
 
EXCHANGE OF EXPERIENCE
Sidorov A.S.
To the question of law enforcement bodies’ liability for violation of the personal integrity principle in the criminal procedure
Purpose: The article deals with the principle of inviolability of the individual in criminal proceedings. The questions relating to the legal responsibility of law enforcement officials, the investigator, the prosecutor and the court for violation of this principle.
Methodology: The comparative and technical law methods were used.
Results: Brought out the vagueness in criminal legal treatment of officers’ acts in legal enforcement bodies, violating the personal integrity principle in the criminal procedure, and omission of a prosecutor’s office and courts in observance and control of criminally-remedial and operational search activities. The omission is connected with administration of complaints of law-enforcement officers’ wrong acts against suspected persons and charged in a crime.
In the author’s opinion, the institute of legal liability for wrong acts (omission) of bodies of inquiry and preliminary investigation, prosecutor’s office, courts and officers to other participants in criminal procedure is needed to be improved.
Novelty/originality/value: The arguments presented in the article relate to defense of the necessity of improvement for legal enforcement bodies liability for unlawful acts (omission) against criminal procedure’s participants.
Keywords: inviolability, legal liability, criminal justice, the law, the court, the investigator, the prosecutor, the accused.
References (transliterated)
1. Altuhov S.A. Prestuplenija sotrudnikov milicii (ponjatie, vidy i osobennosti profilaktiki). SPb.: Juridicheskij centr Press, 2001.
2. Anufrieva E.A., Elinskij V.I., Frolova E.Ju. Kriminalisticheskaja harakteristika prestuplenij, sovershennyh sot-rudnikami organov vnutrennih del v svjazi so sluzhebnoj dejatel’nost’ju // Rossijskij sledovatel’. 2013. № 20. S. 2–5.
3. Anufrieva E.A., Elinskij V. I., Frolova E.Ju. Tipichnye situacii i proverka soobshhenij o prestuplenijah, sovershennyh sotrudnikami OVD v svjazi so sluzhebnoj dejatel’nost’ju // Rossijskij sledovatel’. 2014. № 2. S. 50–54.
4. Bezlepkin B.T. Vozmeshhenie ushherba, prichinennogo grazhdaninu nezakonnymi dejstvijami organov doznanija, predvaritel’nogo sledstvija, prokuratury i suda. M., 1985.
5. Volodina L.M. Mehanizm zashhity prav lichnosti v ugolovnom processe. Tjumen’, 1999.
6. Vorobej D.A., Zarubin A.A. Obespechenie bezopasnosti zashhishhaemyh lic operativno-rozysknymi merami // Rossijskij sledovatel’. 2014. № 11. S. 38–41.
7. Ivanov I.S., Seregina A.A. Psihologicheskie fenomeny opasnosti i bezopasnosti v kontekste ponjatija «chelovek» // Rossijskij sledovatel’. 2013. № 4. S. 44–47.
8. Kravcov D.A. Mery obshhej profilaktiki prestuplenij, sovershaemyh v otnoshenii obvinjaemyh, soderzhashhihsja v SIZO FSIN Rossii // Rossijskij sledovatel’. 2014. № 12. S. 31–36.
9. Lebedev A.V., Vasil’ev Je.A., Fomichev D.V. Problemy obespechenija bezopasnosti lic, podlezhashhih gosudarstvennoj zashhite // Rossijskij sledovatel’. 2014. № 23. S. 51–54.
10. Mazova E.I. Rolevaja funkcija operativno-rozysknoj dejatel’nosti v obespechenii bezopasnosti lic, podlezhashhih gosudarstvennoj zashhite // Rossijskij sledovatel’. 2014. № 6. S. 25–29.
11. Mironov R.G. Sobljudenie prav i zakonnyh interesov podozrevaemyh i obvinjaemyh – pravovaja osnova obespechenija bezopasnosti lic, soderzhashhihsja pod strazhej // Advokatskaja praktika. 2014. № 6. S. 38–43.
12. Poljakov I.N. Otvetstvennost’ po objazatel’stvam vsledstvie prichinenija vreda. M., 1998.
13. Ragulin A.V. Pravo advokata-zashhitnika na besprepjatstvennye vstrechi s doveritelem: voprosy teorii i praktiki // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2015. № 1 (14). S. 31–40.
14. Tarasov A.A. K voprosu o processual’nom statuse lica, v otnoshenii kotorogo osushhestvljaetsja ugolovnoe presledovanie // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2015. № 2 (15). S. 25–31.
15. Halikov A.N., Elinskij V.I. Obstojatel’stva, podle-zhashhie dokazyvaniju pri rassledovanii prestuplenij, sovershennyh sotrudnikami OVD v svjazi so sluzhebnoj dejatel’nost’ju (na primere konkretnyh statej UK RF) // Rossijskij sledovatel’. 2014. № 3. S. 5–10.
 
EXCHANGE OF EXPERIENCE
Nazarov D.G.
Changes of the Russian legislation on bankruptcy
Purpose: Carrying out the practical analysis of changes in the Russian legislation on bankruptcy.
Methodology: Author used the formal-legal method and a method of the included supervision.
Results: In article the main changes which happened recently in the Russian legislation on bankruptcy are opened.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a certain practical value as in it the analysis of actual law-enforcement problems is made.
Keywords: bankruptcy, legislation on bankruptcy, debtor, execution creditor, creditor.
References (transliterated)
1. Bibikov A.I. Reshenija sobranij kak grazhdansko-pravovoj akt // Evrazijskaja advokatura. 2015. № 5 (18). S. 31–34.
2. Semenova T.N. Nesostojatel’nost’ (bankrotstvo) fizicheskih lic // Obrazovanie i pravo. 2015. № 5 (69). S. 222–227.
3. Julova E.S. Metodika prepodavanija discipliny «Pravovoe regulirovanie nesostojatel’nosti (bankrotstva)» v magistrature // Obrazovanie i pravo. 2015. № 9 (73). S. 229–237.
 
EXCHANGE OF EXPERIENCE
Yemelyanova M.A.
Counteraction to criminal bankruptcies: strategy of the largest creditors
Purpose: The analysis of the main actions directed to counteraction to criminal bankruptcies.
Methodology: The author mainly used system (complex) approach, the legallistic (dogmatic) method, and also a method of the included supervision were applied.
Results: In article the main directions of counteraction to criminal bankruptcies are opened and the practical algorithm of the actions directed to protection of interests of creditors is offered.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has the high practical value as in it the analysis of actual problems is made and ways of their solution are proposed.
Keywords: bankruptcy, criminal bankruptcy, counteraction to criminal bankruptcy.
References (transliterated)
1. Julova E.S. Metodika prepodavanija discipliny «Pravovoe regulirovanie nesostojatel’nosti (bankrotstva)» v ma-gistrature // Obrazovanie i pravo. 2015. № 9 (73). S. 229–237.

 

 

 

 

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