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International scientific and practical law journal Eurasian Journal of International Law

SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES № 1 (8) 2014

Historical experience
Emets S.I.
The martyr Ioann – the advocate Ivan Mikhaylovich Kovsharov
Purpose: Consideration of the main aspects of life and activity of the advocate I.M. Kovsharov.
Methodology: Author used a historical-legal method.
Results: In work the main milestones of life and activity of the advocate I.M. Kovsharov recognized in 1992 the Saint Martyr are analyzed, the reasons in connection with which he was subjected to unreasonable criminal prosecution and a punishment measure in the form of execution are considered.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a certain scientific value as in it for the first time in the Russian legal literature the main aspects of life and activity of the advocate I.M. Kovsharov are investigated.
Keywords: legal profession, repressions, legal profession history, lawyer, attorney, counsel, barrister, advocate, advocacy, bar.
References
1. Grudtsyna L.Yu. Rossiyskoy advokature 140 let: istoricheskaya retrospektiva // Advokat. 2004. № 10,11.
2. Erofeev K.B. Obraz advokata v sovetskom kinematografe // Evraziyskaya advokatura. – 2013. – № 2 (3). – S. 20–22.
3. Klevtsov A.V. Stanovlenie i razvitie rossiyskoy advokatury v sovetskiy period (1917–1991). Istoriko-pravovoy aspekt: Avtoref. dis. kand. yurid. nauk. – M., 2006. – S. 9.
4. Lenin V.I. Polnoe sobranie sochineniy. t. 45, M., 1964, S. 666–667.
5. Petrov D.V. Zakonodatel#stvo, reglamentiruyuschee pravovuyu okhranu lichnosti i professional#noy deyatel#nosti advokata v period stanovleniya i utverzhdeniya Sovetskoy vlasti // Evraziyskaya advokatura. 2012. № 1 (1). – S. 16–19.
6. Khaski Yu. Rossiyskie advokaty i Sovetskoe gosudarstvo. Proiskhozhdenie i razvitie sovetskoy advokatury 1917–1939. – M., 1993. – S. 62.

Historical experience
Ragulin A.V.
Stages of formation of institute of professional rights of the advocate-defender in Russia and their general characteristic
Purpose: Research of history of formation of institute of professional rights of advocate-defender in Russia for allocation of stages, their characteristic and the main tendencies of their development.
Methodology: Historical-legal and formally-legal method was used.
Results: In article the main stages of development of institute of professional rights of advocate-defender in Russia are allocated and their characteristic is given: stage of origin of institute of the rights of defender in Russia (XVV–1864); stage of an institutionalization of the rights of the defender in the legislation of imperial Russia (1864–1917); stage of elimination of jury legal profession and creation of institute of defenders (1917–1922); stage of an institutionalization of the rights of advocate-defender in the Soviet legislation (1922–1956); stage of expansion of the rights of the advocate-defender in the Soviet legislation (1956–1991); Post-Soviet stage of development of the rights of the advocate-defender (1993–2001) ; the present stage (2001 – to the present). It is established that between stages there is a certain continuity, thus the volume of the rights gradually extended, and the corresponding precepts of law, were improved depending on increase of level of democratization of the Russian state and society and increase of the status of advocacy profession. Thus, existence of so-called counter reforms of professional rights of advocates, as a rule, following entered expansion owing to which volume of professional rights of advocates defender possibility of their practical realization was narrowed or limited took place. It is established that development of institute of professional rights of the advocate-defender is caused by development of institute of procedural rights of persons protected by it, and also the tendency of expansion of professional rights of the advocate-defender at the expense of improvement of the status professional rights included in provisions of the act, regulating bases of the organization and advocacy profession activity is revealed.
Novelty/originality/value: Article possesses the high scientific value as is one of the first attempts to consider history of development of Russia advocacy profession through a prism of evolution of institute of professional rights of the advocate-defender.
Keywords: advocacy profession history, advocate-defender, professional rights of advocate.
References
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PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND Advocacy PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Sibirtsev G.I.
Theoretical bases of independence of protective legal activity within criminal procedure
Purpose: Theoretical justification of the content of the principle of independence of advocate activity in criminal trial.
Methodology: The author applied a formal-legal method and a method of theoretical modeling.
Results: The author comes to a conclusion that independence represents lack of third-party influence or impact on activity of any subject, however thus notes that, proceeding from sense of Art. 5 of Federal Law «About Judicial System of the Russian Federation», the legislator divides determination of independence and independence, without considering them as the identical. The author specifies that independence is perceived by the legislator as lack of any influence of the third parties on actions of the advocate, and independence of the advocate should be understood as ability to act in legal relationship directly on its own behalf, and also to bear disciplinary, civil, and equally administrative and criminal liability for the actions which are carried out by it within rendering the qualified legal aid.
Novelty/originality/value: Independence is considered as the backbone legal principle, and also as the most important element of a modern sociocultural paradigm. Article has the high scientific value as contains author’s generalizations possessing novelty and conclusions which can be used in scientific and practical activities at justification and disclosure of the content of the principle of independence of legal profession and advocate activity.
Keywords: independence of advocate activity, principle of competitiveness of criminal procedure, legal profession theory, theory of criminal procedure, lawyer, attorney, counsel, barrister, advocate, advocacy, legal profession, bar.
References
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3. Galoganov A.P. Zakon «Ob advokatskoy deyatel#-nosti i advokature v RF»: neobkhodimy li izmeneniya? // Uchenye trudy Rossiyskoy akademii advokatury i notariata. – 2012. – № 3. – S. 5–11.
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ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Birjukov P.N.
To a question of possibility of reduction by court of the amount of compensation for violation of the rights for the trademark
Purpose: The analysis of practice of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation about decrease in the amount of compensation for violations of intellectual property rights.
Methodology: The author used a formal-legal method and a method of studying of materials of lawsuits.
Results: In article the conclusion that the amount of compensation has to be reasonable is drawn, and the purpose of application of this measure of responsibility is restoration of a property status of the owner. The basis of institute of compensation consists in ensuring compensation of property losses of the owner in the simplified order – without proof of the size of losses. It is noted that a natural limit of application of institute of compensation is the exit of the specific owner out of limits of purpose of this competence, namely acquisition owing to a hypothetical offense of the property benefits which were not and could not be lost by it owing to offense commission. The offense from one person cannot be considered as lawfully established basis of enrichment of other person (owner). At the same time it is noted that the court at the corresponding justification is not deprived of opportunity to collect a compensation amount for violation of the rights for the trademark in a smaller size in comparison with the declared requirement.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a certain scientific value and the important practical importance as contains author’s generalizations and the conclusions allowing systemically considering legal positions of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation on possibility of reduction of the amount of compensation for violation of the rights for the trademark.
Keywords: intellectual property, trademark, compensation, amount of compensation.
References
1. http://www.consultant.ru/law/hotdocs/23263.html.
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3. Biryukov P.N. Pravo intellektual#noy sobstvennosti: Uchebnik dlya bakalavrov. – M.: Yurayt, 2014. – Gl. 3.
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5. Popov A.V. K voprosu o predmete dogovora kom-mercheskoy kontsessii // Obrazovanie i pravo. – 2012. – № 8 (36). – S. 26.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Dubrovin O.V., Pominov A.V.
Complex examination as proof of the circumstances important by hearing of cases about protection of business reputation
Purpose: Research of a phenomenon of complex judicial examination in cases of protection of business reputation.
Methodology: The authors widely applied system approach, formal-legal and linguistic methods, a method of the included supervision were used.
Results: In article the conclusion that business reputation as set of meanings and representations in consciousness of the subject of the market, acts as the key tool regulating behavior of subjects of the market at a stage of decision-making is drawn. It is the indicator which defines a result of set of business actions (comparison, the analysis, modeling, forecasting, etc.) that testifies to the importance of reputation and aspiration of the subject of the market to carry out the business actions directed on improvement of system of an assessment of the subject of the market in consciousness of other subjects of the market. At the same time objective absence of accurate treatments of this concept of a legal framework conducts to objectivity problems in an expert assessment of materials of the affairs connected with this concept. On the basis of these provisions by authors some problems of statement of questions and development of answers to them are investigated at appointment and carrying out complex psycholinguistic and economic examination.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has the high scientific value and the practical importance as contains author’s generalizations possessing novelty and conclusions which can be applied in lawyer, court and judicial and expert practice.
Keywords: expert activity, judicial examination, protection of business reputation, complex judicial examination.
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5. Pominov A.V., Dubrovin O.V. Zaschita chesti, dos-
toinstva i delovoy reputatsii // Yuzh-no-Ural#skiy yuridi-cheskiy vestnik. – 2013. – № 4.
6. Rayzberg B.A., Lozovskiy L.Sh., Starodubtseva E.B. Sovremennyy ekonomicheskiy slovar#. – 2-e izd., ispr. – M.: INFRA, 1999. – S. 479.
7. Rossinskaya E.R., Galyashina E.I. Nastol#naya kniga sud#i: sudebnaya ekspertiza: teoriya i praktika, tipichnye voprosy i nestandartnye situatsii. – M.: Prospekt, 2012. – S. 464.
8. Slovar# biznes-terminov // Slovari i entsiklopedii na Akademike [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/business/11503.
9. Slovar# inostrannykh slov russkogo yazyka // Slovari i entsiklopedii na Akademike [Elektronnyy resurs – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/dic_fwords/31428/%D0%A0%D0%95%D0%9F%D0%A3%D0%A2%D0%90%D0%A6%D0%98%D0%AF.
10. Tolcheeva N.K. Nastol#naya kniga sud#i po grazhdanskim delam. – 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. – M.: Prospekt, 2008. – S. 656.
11. Chernoe zoloto – chernym nalom // Gil#diya ekspertov-lingvistov [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://www.rusexpert.ru/books/cena_slova3/004.htm#6.
12. Ekonomicheskiy slovar# // Slovari i entsiklopedii na Akademike [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/econ_dict/12830.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Azizyan V.G., Zhuravlenko N.I.
Protection of the rights of authors of computer programs and manufacturers of databases in a judicial order1
Purpose: Identification and solution of problems of protection rights of authors of computer programs and databases in a judicial order.
Methodology: Authors widely used system approach, the formal-legal method and a method of the included supervision were applied.
Results: In work the main difficulties in proof of authorship of computer programs and the databases, their registration caused by system are analyzed. Only the certificate on the registration, granted by Federal Service for Intellectual Property, to patents and trademarks, can be used by his owner as the indisputable proof of the rights. Legal mechanisms of attraction to civil, administrative and criminal liability for copyright violation are also analyzed, features of detection of the counterfeit software are shown, in particular the conclusion that expert research of counterfeit information and program production demands use of special knowledge of various areas of science and equipment therefore it has to have complex character is drawn. For obtaining the objective expert opinion the following stages can be the basis for an expert technique: identification of external signs of counterfeit products and identification of signs of piracy in structure, the contents, consumer properties of information software products.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a certain scientific value as it contains author’s generalizations and the conclusions having the scientific and practical importance for implementation of judicial protection of the rights of authors of computer programs and manufacturers of databases.
Keywords: computer program, computer program, database, author’s right, legal protection, copyright, exclusive right of the manufacturer of a database.
References
1. Belousov A. Provedenie ekspertizy na predmet kontrafaktnosti: Forum, posvyaschennyy problemam bor#by s komp#yuternoy prestupnost#yu [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://cubercrime.zp.ua/viewtopic.php?p=2250&sid=b07db974c666c2ad05d3820954d26c7e.
2. Mitrofanova A.V. Osnovnye aspekty prirody i soderzhaniya sub#ektivnykh avtorskikh prav // Obrazova-nie i pravo. – 2010. – № 4. – S. 157.
3. Pravovaya okhrana programm dlya EVM, baz dannykh, topologiy integral#nykh mikroskhem (TIMS) [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://www.reg-ta.ru/a143/.
4. Semikalenova A.I. Aktual#nye voprosy ustanovleniya priznakov kontrafaktnosti informatsionno-programmnoy produktsii: Materialy nauchnoy konferentsii [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://jurfak.spb.ru/conference/18102000/semikolenova.htm.
5. Sergeev A.P. Pravo intellektual#noy sobstvennosti v Rossiyskoy Federatsii. – M.: PROSPEKT, 1999. – S. 56.
6. Simkin L.S. Programmy dlya EVM: pravovaya okhrana (pravovye sredstva protiv komp#yuternogo piratstva). – M.: Gorodets, 1998. – S. 45.
7. Yankovenko D.A. Dogovornoe oformlenie peredachi prav na programmy dlya EVM v grazhdanskom zakonodatel#stve Germanii // Uchenye trudy Rossiyskoy akademii advokatury i notariata. – 2013. – № 3 (30). – S. 122–124.

PROTECTION OF THE PROFESSIONAL RIGHTS OF ADVOCATe
Zakomoldin A.V.
About improvement of a legislative regulation of opportunities of the advocate- defender in the course of election concerning his client of separate measures of restraint
Purpose: Consideration of procedural and tactical aspects of participation of the advocate-defender in the solution of a question on a measure of restraint in criminal trial and development of offers on improvement of the legislation regulating activity of the advocate-defender during the corresponding procedure.
Methodology: The author applied a formal-legal method and a method of theoretical modeling.
Results: The author comes to a conclusion that the advocate-defender should participate in creation of conditions for election of softer measure of restraint, in particular: to submit the written petition of deserving trust of the person (and it is better than several persons) for a consent to act as the personal guarantor, to submit the written petition for pledge application, and also the guarantee certificate about entering of the sum of pledge into concrete terms. Author formulated offers in the text of the Code of penal procedure of the Russian Federation of the provision on obligation of the prior notice of the defender and his client about intention to apply to the last this or that measure of restraint locates.
Novelty/originality/value: Article possesses a certain scientific value and the high practical importance as contains author’s generalizations possessing novelty, conclusions and offers which can be applied in lawyer practice and at improvement of the criminal procedure legislation.
Keywords: the qualified legal aid, protection, criminal procedure, measures of restraint, lawyer, attorney, counsel, barrister, advocate, advocacy, legal profession, bar.
References
1. Kiselev P.P. Advokatskoe ugolovnoe rassledovanie kak samostoyatel#naya forma kvalifitsirovannoy yuridicheskoy pomoschi // Uchenye trudy Rossiyskoy akademii advokatury i notariata. – 2013. – № 1 (28). – S. 13–19.
2. Ragulin A.V. Ugolovno-protsessual#nye i taktiches-kie aspekty deyatel#nosti advokata pri zaderzhanii podzaschitnogo i izbranii v otnoshenii nego mer presecheniya // Evraziyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal. – 2008. – № 2 (4). – S. 73–86.
3. Smirnov A.V., Kalinovskiy K.B. Ugolovnyy protsess: Uchebnik / Pod obsch. red. A.V. Smirnova. – M.: KNORUS, 2008.

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND DISCIPLINARY RESPONSIBILITY OF ADVOCATe
Shaykhullin M.S.
To a question of formation of traditions of professional ethics of advocate
Purpose: Statement of a question of need and relevance of formation of traditions of professional ethics of advocate in a formation context in Russia the constitutional, democratic state, improvement of standards of the legislation on advocacy profession and the Code of professional ethics of advocate.
Methodology: The author analyzed dynamics of scientific researches in the field of the moral, ethical beginnings in advocate’s activity and the advocacy profession organization. By means of an extrapolative method possible tendencies of development and improvement of norms of professional ethics of advocate are defined.
Results: In article degree of a readiness of questions of professional ethics in the Russian jurisprudence at different times is shown, the role of traditions as the phenomena influencing formation of the basic principles defining limits of behavior of advocate as a result of implementation of professional functions of protection and representation is designated, ways and methods of improvement of professional ethics of advocate on the basis of the revealed positive traditions of jury legal profession are shown.
Novelty/originality/value: The provision of work represent the considerable scientific value as in work the picture of a scientific readiness of questions of professional ethics, its dynamics and stagnation in different years is most fully reflected. The questions not developed and actual now concerning professional ethics of advocate are revealed, and also options of improvement of a regulation of professional ethics in advocacy profession are offered.
Keywords: advocacy profession, traditions, professional ethics.
References
1. Abushakhmin B.F., Barenboym P.D., Zaikin N. Pochemu narushayutsya normy professional#noy etiki? // Sotsialisticheskaya zakonnost#. – 1986. – № 12. – S. 45–47.
2. Azarov D.N. Formirovanie professional#nykh eticheskikh pravil i distsiplinarnoy otvetstvennosti advokata: Dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. – M., 2009.
3. Boykov A.D. Printsipy advokatskoy etiki // Advokatskaya praktika. – 2003. – № 1. – S. 9–11.
4. Danilevich A.A. Voprosy etiki zaschititel#noy rechi // Tendentsii i perspektivy razvitiya prava i ukrepleniya sotsialisticheskoy zakonnosti. – Minsk: Izd-vo BGU, 1987. – S. 108–109.
5. Zhenina M.A. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy distsiplinarnoy otvetstvennosti advokata: Dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. – M., 2009.
6. Matuzov N.I., Mal#ko A.V. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava. – M., 2006. – S. 239.
7. Novitskiy I.B. Istochniki sovetskogo grazhdanskogo prava. – M.: Yurid. lit., 1959. – S. 67–68.
8. Padva G.P. Etika i taktika doprosa poterpevshego zaschitnikom obvinyaemogo // Sovetskaya yustitsiya. – 1987. – № 7. – S. 26.
9. Pravila advokatskoy professii v Rossii. M., 1913 / Sost.: A.V. Vorob#ev, A.V. Polyakov, Yu.V. Tikhonravov. – M.: Statut, 2003.
10. Ragulin A.V. Professional#nye prava lits, osuschestvlyayuschikh funktsiyu zaschity v ugolovnom protsesse, na nachal#nom etape zarozhdeniya advokatury v Rossii // Istoricheskie, filosofskie, politicheskie i yuridicheskie nauki, kul#turologiya i iskusstvovedenie. Voprosy teorii i praktiki. – 2012. – № 1 (15). – S. 163.
11. Cheprasov N.V. Kontseptsiya advokatskoy etiki (v poreformennoy Rossii) // Iz istorii razvitiya politiko-pravovykh idey. – M.: Izd-vo IGiP AN SSSR, 1984. – S. 100–109.
12. Shaykhullin M.S. Traditsii v sisteme normativnogo regulirovaniya mestnogo samoupravleniya // Vestnik Volzhskogo universiteta im. V.N. Tatischeva. – 2013. – № 2. – S. 136–137.
13. Shaykhullin M.S. Vzaimodeystvie advokatury i organov mestnogo samoupravleniya: traditsiya ili pravovaya neobkhodimost# // Uchenye trudy Rossiyskoy akademii advokatury i notariata. – 2011. – № 4. – S. 18–21.
14. Shaykhullin M.S. Vzaimodeystvie advokatury i organov mestnogo samoupravleniya kak faktor pravovogo i sotsial#nogo razvitiya institutov grazhdanskogo obschestva v Rossii // Evraziyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal. – 2010. – № 31. – S. 120–122.
15. Shaykhullin M.S. Vzaimodeystvie advokatury i organov mestnogo samoupravleniya v Rossii: sotsial#no-pravovye aspekty // Sotsial#naya politika i sotsiologiya. – 2010. – № 8. – S. 422–426.
16. Shaykhullin M.S. K voprosu o mekhanizme pravovogo regulirovaniya vzaimodeystviya advokatury i organov mestnogo samoupravleniya v Rossii // Administrativnoe i munitsipal#noe pravo. – 2010. – № 10. – S. 5–10.
17. Shaykhullin M.S. Otlichie traditsiy mestnogo samoupravleniya ot inykh smezhnykh pravovykh ponyatiy i kategoriy // Evraziyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal. – 2011. – № 43. – S. 72.
18. Shaykhullin M.S. Pravovoe regulirovanie i formirovanie novykh traditsiy vzaimodeystviya advokatury i organov mestnogo samoupravleniya v Rossii // Advokatskaya praktika. – 2011. – № 2. – S. 41–45.

Human rights IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Samadov R.T.
The UN Human Rights Council and Its Predecessor – the Commission on Human Rights: standard-setting and monitoring activities
Purpose: To analyse the legal background of the activity of the UN Commission on Human Rights and the UN Human Rights Council in the sphere of standard-setting and monitoring.
Methodology: Historical-legal, formal-juridical and comparative-legal models are applied, in conjunction with tailored theoretical frameworks.
This article is based on the author’s essay submitted to the University of Leeds, UK (15.05.2012).
Outcomes: The Human Rights Council, an international human rights protection body within the UN system, which replaced the Commission on Human Rights, is an institution that holds primary importance. As such, it has been accorded the necessary competences to promote and protect of human rights at the global level. The article outlines the historical development of the UN Commission on Human Rights and Human Rights Council, provides a general assessment of the activity of UN Human Rights Council, and reveals the specific features of this activity and the challenges arising. The author suggests that the Commission on Human Rights functioned successfully, and supported the creation of an international human rights framework. Although some UN member states attempted to use it as a tool by which to advance their own political objectives, the Commission was able to withstand this practice. Nevertheless, heavy criticism of the Commission and political endeavours of numerous countries reached a peak in the early 2000s, and ultimately led to its abolition and the subsequent creation of the Human Rights Council. The Human Rights Council enjoys a higher status and broader mandate than its predecessor, enabling it to redress the shortcomings that affected the work of the Commission. The Council also faces numerous challenges generated by the political interests of individual states; however, it is presumed that these problems can be overcome with the support of non-governmental organisations and national human rights institutions.
Novelty/originality/importance: The author’s general assessments and conclusions provide valuable new insights which will highly contribute to continuing scientific and practical activity.
Keywords: UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Human Rights Council, standard-setting, special procedures.
References
1. A/HRC/RES/5/2 (18.06.2007).
2. A/HRC/RES/8/2 (18/06/2008).
3. Alston Philip, ‘Reconceiving the UN Human Rights Regime: challenges confronting the new UN Human Rights Council’ [2006] 7 Melbourne Journal of International Law.
4. Alston Philip, ‘The Commission on Human Rights’, in Philip Alston (eds), The United Nations and Human Rights: a critical appraisal (Oxford: Clarendon, 1992).
5. Boyle Kevin, ‘The United Nations Human Rights Council: politics, power and human rights’ [2009] 60(2) Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly.
6. Callejon Claire, ‘Developments at the Human Rights Council in 2007: A Reflection of its Ambivalence’ [2008] 8 Human Rights Law Review.
7. Council Res. 1/1, 29 June 2006, A/61/53 at 3.
8. Dominguez Redondo Elvira, ‘The Universal Periodic Review of the UN Human Rights Council: An Assessment of the First Session’ [2008] 7(3) Chinese Journal of International Law.
9. ECOSOC Res. 1979/6.
10. ECOSOC Res. E/RES/5 (I) of 16 February 1946.
11. ECOSOC Res. E/RES/9 (II) of 21 June 1946.
12. Flinterman Cees and Baehr Peter, ‘Three Cheers for the New Human Rights Council?’ [2005] 23 Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights.
13. Freedman Rosa, ‘Improvement on the Commission? The UN Human Rights Council’s Inaction on Darfur’ [2009] 16(1) University of California, Davis Journal of International Law and Policy 81.
14. Ghanea Nazila, ‘From UN Commission on Human Rights to UN Human Rights Council: one step forwards or two steps sideways?’ [2006] 55(3) International and Comparative Law Quarterly.
15. Gibney Mark, Wood Reed, ‘Prospects for the New UN Human Rights Council’ [2007–2008] 4 International Studies Journal 1, 2.
16. Gutter Jeroen, Thematic Procedures of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and International Law: In Search of a Sense of Community (Antwerp: Intersentia, 2006).
17. Gutter Jeroen, ‘Special procedures and the Human Rights Council: achievements and challenges ahead’ [2007] 7(1) Human Rights Law Review.
18. Hannum Hurst, Reforming the special procedures and mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights’  [2007] 7(1) Human Rights Law Review.
19. Harris David, Cases and materials on international law (7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2010).
20. Mukherjee Amrita, Torture and the United Nations: charter and treaty-based monitoring (London: Cameron May, 2008).
21. Nader Lucia, ‘The role of NGOs in the UN Human Rights Council’ [2007] 7 SUR – International Journal on Human Rights 7.
22. Rahmani-Ocora Ladan, ‘Giving the Emperor Real Clothes: The UN Human Rights Council’, [2006] 12 Global Governance;
23. Rehman Javaid, International Human Rights law (2nd edn, Longman 2010).
24. Report of the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, chaired by Anand Panyarachun, ‘A more Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility’, UN Doc. A/59/565 (2004), para. 283.
25. Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, ‘In Larger Freedom: Development, Security and Human Rights for All’, UN Doc. A/59/2005 (2005), para. 182.
26. Scannella Patrizia and Splinter Peter, ‘The United Nations Human Rights Council: a promise to be fulfilled’ [2007] 7(1) Human Rights Law Review.
27. Schrijver Nico, ‘The UN Human Rights Council: A New ‘Society of the Committed’ or Just Old Wine in New Bottles?’[2007] 20 Leiden Journal of International Law.
28. Sir Nigel Rodley, ‘United Nations Human Rights Treaty Bodies and Special Procedures of the Commission on Human Rights – Complementarity or Competition?’ [2003] 25 Human Rights Quarterly.
29. Steiner Henry, Alston Philip and Goodman Ryan, International Human Rights in Context: law, politics, morals: text and materials (3rd edn, OUP 2008).
30. UN Doc. A/810 at 71 (1948).
31. UN Doc. A/RES/60/251 (2006).
32. Upton Helen, ‘The Human Rights Council: First Impressions and Future Challenges’ [2007] 7 Human Rights Law Review.
33. Van Boven Theo, ‘The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: The History of a Contested Project’ [2007] 20 Leiden Journal of International Law.
34. Weissbrodt David, Fredrikson and Byron, ‘Reform of the UN Commission on Human Rights’ [2004] 22/4 Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EUR ASIAN SPACE
Malikov M.F.
Retrospective analysis of the adjudication
Purpose: Elaboration of the theoretical provisions allowing participants of criminal procedure to carry out the retrospective analysis of text and efficiency of the adjudication on criminal case.
Methodology: The author applied a formal-legal method and a method of theoretical modeling.
Results: The author draws a conclusion that indicators of procedural efficiency of a sentence are: its timely removal; reflection in it exact social and legal qualification of actions of the guilty; objective statement in a sentence of all circumstances of criminal case; legality of the allowed civil suit; exact definition of a type of correctional facility to the persons condemned to imprisonment; lawful combination of adjudication and private definition of court; objective connection and allocation of criminal cases; correct definition of an order of execution of adjudication; exact definition of bases of a justification innocent. To ways of determination of efficiency of realization of a adjudication by the author are carried: the analysis of preventive activity of the bodies participating performed by punishment; studying of statistical data on timeliness of execution of adjudications; acceptance of lawful measures to the subjects evading from implementation of decisions, vessels containing in adjudications; replacement of a certain type of punishment with others in case of impossibility of its execution; permission of the questions connected with enforcement of the sentence.
Novelty/originality/value: Article possesses the high scientific value as contains author’s generalizations possessing novelty and conclusions which can be used in law-enforcement practice at implementation of the analysis of adjudication on criminal case.
Keywords: adjudication, adjudication analysis, efficiency of adjudication.
References
1. Malikov M.F. Kontseptual#nye osnovy izucheniya sudebnogo prigovora. – Ufa: RIO BashGU, 2003.
2. Malikov M.F. Opravdatel#nyy prigovor v sovetskom ugolovnom protsesse: Avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. – Kazan#: KGU, 1974.
3. Martyshkin V.N. U rossiyskikh sudey ne dolzhno byt# konveyernogo proizvodstva: optimizatsiya nagruzki sudey kak sredstvo pravovoy zaschity uchastnikov sudoproizvodstva i povysheniya kachestva pravosudiya // Evraziyskaya advokatura. – 2012. – № 1 (1). – S. 98–105.
4. Oganesyan R.M. Opravdanie za nedokazannost#yu uchastiya podsudimogo v sovershenii prestupleniya // Problemy gosudarstva i prava na sovremennom etape. Trudy aspirantov i molodykh uchenykh. – Vyp. 2. – M., 1970. – S. 230–242.
5. Reshnyak M.G. Prezumptsiya nevinovnosti: ponya-tie i suschnost#, sotsial#naya i yuridicheskaya priroda vozniknoveniya // Uchenye trudy Rossiyskoy akademii advokatury i notariata. – 2010. – № 2 (17). – S. 54–61.
6. Semenenko M. O merakh po sovershenstvovaniyu uchastiya prokurora v kachestve gosudarstvennogo obvi-nitelya v sude s uchastiem prisyazhnykh zasedateley // Pravo i zhizn#. – 2011. – № 155 (5). – S. 221–238.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EUR ASIAN SPACE
Antsupova T.A.
The general and special principles of lawsuit in the Council of Europe
Purpose: Systematization of the principles of lawsuit in the Council of Europe.
Methodology: Author used formal-legal and comparative legal methods.
Results: Among the principles of lawsuit in the Council of Europe, relating to the principles of legal proceedings, the principles of procedural equality of the parties are allocated; competitivenesses; the principle of «Audi alteram partem» («listen also to other party»); the principle of «stare decisis» («the issue resolved by court finally, is not subject to new trial by the same court or court of parallel jurisdiction»); formal dispositions; equal access to justice; urgency of powers of judges; term restrictions for the address with the complaint; publicity of oral hearings; secret of meetings of judges; independence and impartiality of court; justice implementation only court. In relation to ECHR activity by the author the following groups of the principles are allocated: the principles of interpretation of the Convention on human rights protection and fundamental freedoms (autonomy, the evolutionary principle, efficiency, the principle of scope of application, proportionality, subsidiarity) and other principles applied at justification of decisions of ECHR (the principle of «de minimis non curat praetor», the principle of the all-European consensus, the principle of freedom of a discretion).
Novelty/originality/value: Article has the high scientific value as contains author’s generalizations and conclusions, important systems for understanding and the content of the principles of lawsuit in the European Court of Human Rights and Administrative tribunal of the Council of Europe.
Keywords: the international procedural law, the international lawsuit, lawsuit in the Council of Europe, the Convention on human rights protection and fundamental freedoms, European Court of Human Rights, Administrative tribunal of the Council of Europe.
References
1. Case of A, B and C v. Ireland (Grand Chamber), (Application no. 25579/05), Judgment, 16 December 2010 [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-102332#{«itemid»:[«001-102332»].
2. Case of Lautsi and others v. Italy (Grand Chamber), (Application no. 30814/06), Judgment, 18 March 2011 [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-104040#{«itemid»:[«001-104040»].
3. Cristinel Ioan Murzea. The theories of interpreting the European Convention of Human Rights – as shown in the case law of the European Court Of Human Rights // The Juridical Current. 2013. Volume 52, issue March. – R. 56.
4. Biryukov P.N. Mezhdunarodnoe pravo: Uchebnik dlya bakalavrov. – 6-e izd. – M.: Yurayt, 2013. – S. 112.
5. Galoganov A.P. Pravo na obraschenie v Evropeyskiy sud po pravam cheloveka v sisteme realizatsii konstitutsionnogo prava cheloveka na kvalifitsirovannuyu yuridicheskuyu pomosch# // Obrazovanie i pravo. – 2011. – № 6. – S. 117–129.
6. Galoganov A.P. Realizatsiya konstitutsionnogo prava na kvalifitsirovannuyu yuridicheskuyu pomosch# pri sostavlenii zhaloby v Evropeyskiy sud po pravam cheloveka // Obrazovanie i pravo. – 2013. – № 3 (43). – S. 75–84.
7. De Sal#via M. Evropeyskaya konventsiya po pravam cheloveka. – SPb., 2004. – S. 68–73.
8. Kamarovskiy L.A. O mezhdunarodnom sude. – M.: Tipografiya T. Malinskogo, 1881.
9. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo po kriteriyam priemlemosti [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Admissibility_guide_RUS.pdf.
10. Fedorov I.V. Mezhdunarodnoe protsessual#noe pravo // Mezhdunarodnoe pravo / Otv. red.: G.V. Ignatenko, O.I. Tiunov. – 5-e izd. – M.: Norma, 2009. – Gl. 25.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Vorobjev M.V.
About application of TIR carnets in Russia for international transport
politics and Economics of Eurasia
Purpose: Consideration of the problem questions connected with application of TIR carnets for registration of customs transit.
Methodology: The author used formal-legal method and comparative and legal methods.
Results: By the author it is noted that lack of guarantee association in the state territory – the participant TIR Convention is not Convention violation, thus possibility of definition of guarantee association and an order of such definition are established by the participating state independently. The conclusion that to the state is not forbidden to refuse to operating guarantee association further issue of TIR carnets is also drawn, and the TIR procedure is not applied in the territory of those states where there are no the guarantee associations authorized on issue of TIR carnets, despite action of the Convention in the territory of these states. The list of actions of customs authorities which can be estimated as breaking norms of international law locates in work. Them treat: refusal in adoption of the TIR carnets in case of the beginning of procedure of customs transit with application of the TIR carnets in customs authority of the Russian Federation; refusal in adoption of the TIR carnets for customs transit when importing goods to the territory of Russia through territories of Belarus and Kazakhstan if customs escort or definition of a route of transportation was applied; refusal in adoption of TIR carnets for customs transit when importing goods to the territory of the Russian Federation through the territory of the states which are not entering the Customs Union. On the basis of these provisions in work recommendations having practical value for the international carriers using TIR carnets are formulated.
Novelty/originality/value: Article possesses the high scientific value as is one of the first scientific works containing recommendations to the international carriers on application of TIR carnets in case of violation of Federal Custom Service of Russia of standards of the TIR Convention, and possesses high practical value for the experts who are carrying out legal maintenance of international transport.
Keywords: TIR convention, customs transit, providing customs payment.
References
1. http://www.asmap.ru/home.php?id=21226.
2. http://www.asmap.ru/home.php?id=21230&PHPSESSID=7do4qd8gmuaotc3dfcls6qjc77.
3. http://www.asmap.ru/home.php?id=21687.
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ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Velichko D.S.
Constitutional and legal bases of activity of diplomatic service
Purpose: The analysis of legal bases of regulation of diplomatic activity in Ukraine and the Russian Federation.
Methodology: The author used formal-legal and comparative legal methods.
Results: In article the conclusion is drawn on that, with development of modern means of communication and transport the role of permanent diplomatic representations in the sphere of the highest policy weakens. At the same time the intensification of interstate communications causes increase of value of diplomatic communications for ensuring national interests of the states in various spheres of public life. It is noted that for the first time the principles of legal regulation of diplomatic activity at the international level were consolidated in 1961 with adoption of the Vienna convention on the right of international treaties. Within national legal systems of Ukraine and the Russian Federation the whole complexes of the normative legal acts, urged to regulate diplomatic activity were accepted. The basic principles of the organization of all foreign policy and, respectively, activity of diplomatic bodies both in Ukraine, and in Russia are enshrined in the laws of these states analyzed in work.
Novelty/originality/value: Article has a certain scientific value as contains the author’s generalizations, allowing to understand structure of the domestic legislation of Russia and Ukraine in the sphere of regulation of diplomatic activity and to reveal the basic principles of its organization.
Keywords: diplomacy, permanent diplomatic representations, constitutional legal mechanism of realization of foreign policy of the state.
References
1. Watson A. Diplomacy: the Dialog Between States. – Routledge, 1982.
2. Denisov A.V., Kuleshov I.V. Mesto diplomaticheskoy sluzhby v sisteme gosudarstvennoy sluzhby RF // Voprosy upravleniya. – 2009. – № 9 [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://vestnik.uapa.ru/ru-ru/issue/
2009/04/04.
3. Mashin A.A. Konstitutsionnoe (gosudarstvennoe) pravo zarubezhnykh stran. – M.: Yustitsinform, 2010. – C. 10.

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